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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 30 din 10 februarie 1998

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997 privind Statutul personalului didactic

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 113 din 16 martie 1998


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    Ioan Muraru            - presedinte
    Costica Bulai          - judecator
    Viorel Mihai Ciobanu   - judecator
    Mihai Constantinescu   - judecator
    Nicolae Popa           - judecator
    Lucian Stangu          - judecator
    Florin Bucur Vasilescu - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica     - judecator
    Victor Dan Zlatescu    - judecator
    Paula C. Pantea        - procuror
    Florentina Geangu      - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol, pronuntarea asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997, invocata de Beleiu Gheorghe in Dosarul nr. 16.960/1997 al Judecatoriei Sectorului 1 Bucuresti.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta publica din data de 3 februarie 1998, in prezenta lui Beleiu Gheorghe Justin, fiul autorului exceptiei, a reprezentantului Ministerului Public si in lipsa celorlalte parti legal citate, si au fost consemnate in incheierea de la acea data, cand Curtea, avand nevoie de timp pentru a delibera, a amanat pronuntarea pentru data de 10 februarie 1998.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Prin actiunea formulata, Beleiu Gheorghe a chemat in judecata Universitatea Independenta "Titu Maiorescu", solicitand instantei obligarea paratei la respectarea conventiei didactice incheiate intre parti. In motivarea cererii reclamantul a aratat ca parata, prin Adresa nr. 219 din 1 septembrie 1997, i-a comunicat ca, incepand cu luna octombrie 1997, intelege sa rezilieze conventia intervenita, deoarece dispozitiile art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997 privind Statutul personalului didactic nu permit continuarea acestei colaborari.
    La termenul de judecata din data de 18 septembrie 1997 reclamantul a invocat exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997, sustinand, in esenta, ca ele sunt contrare art. 38 alin. (1) din Constitutie, potrivit caruia dreptul la munca nu poate fi ingradit, iar restrangerea unor drepturi nu este posibila decat in cazurile limitative prevazute la art. 49 din Constitutie. Mai arata ca dispozitiile contestate sunt contrare art. 20 din Constitutie, deoarece incalca art. 6 pct. 1 din Pactul international cu privire la drepturile economice, sociale si culturale, la care tara noastra este parte.
    Prin Incheierea din 18 septembrie 1997, Judecatoria Sectorului 1 Bucuresti a suspendat judecarea cauzei si, in temeiul art. 23 alin. (1) si (2) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, a trimis dosarul Curtii Constitutionale pentru a se pronunta asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate. Intrucat incheierea nu continea opinia instantei, Curtea a cerut indeplinirea acestei obligatii legale si, ca urmare, Judecatoria Sectorului 1 Bucuresti si-a completat incheierea, exprimand opinia ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este intemeiata.
    Potrivit art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, astfel cum a fost modificata prin Legea nr. 138/1997, s-au solicitat puncte de vedere presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    In punctul de vedere al Guvernului se apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata, deoarece prin textul criticat (art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997), "pornind de la norma didactica (...) si pentru asigurarea unui invatamant superior de calitate", a fost limitat cumulul cadrelor didactice universitare la cel mult doua norme didactice. Se opineaza, de asemenea, ca nu sunt incalcate prevederile art. 20 din Constitutie si nici cele din pactele si acordurile internationale privind dreptul la munca. Se apreciaza ca nu sunt incalcate nici prevederile art. 38 din Constitutie, care prevad ca alegerea profesiei si a locului de munca sunt libere, si nici ale art. 49 din Constitutie, pentru ca limitarea a fost instituita prin lege si fara incalcarea dreptului la munca, in vederea asigurarii unui invatamant de calitate.
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere.
    In sedinta publica din data de 3 februarie 1998, fiul autorului exceptiei a depus la dosarul cauzei certificatul de deces al tatalui sau si a solicitat continuarea judecarii si admiterea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate, astfel cum a fost formulata.
    Reprezentanta Ministerului Public a pus concluzii de admitere a exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, dispozitiile legale atacate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei si ale Legii nr. 47/1992, republicata, retine urmatoarele:
    In temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si al art. 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, Curtea este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate invocata. Aceasta a fost legal investita, iar solutionarea exceptiei se impune, deoarece, potrivit dispozitiilor art. 25 din Regulamentul de organizare si functionare a Curtii Constitutionale, publicat in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 308 din 12 noiembrie 1997, Curtea, o data legal sesizata, procedeaza la examinarea constitutionalitatii, nefiind aplicabile dispozitiile referitoare la suspendarea, intreruperea sau stingerea procesului.
    Potrivit art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997 privind Statutul personalului didactic, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 158 din 16 iulie 1997, "Personalul didactic din invatamantul de stat, precum si cel al institutiilor de invatamant privat autorizate sau acreditate, poate indeplini cel mult doua norme didactice, cu acordul conducerii unitatii din invatamant unde este titular cu carnet de munca".
    In acelasi timp insa, art. 38 alin. (1) din Constitutie prevede ca "Dreptul la munca nu poate fi ingradit. Alegerea profesiei si alegerea locului de munca sunt libere". In acelasi sens sunt si dispozitiile art. 6 pct. 1 din Pactul international cu privire la drepturile economice, sociale si culturale, ratificat de Romania prin Decretul nr. 212/1974, potrivit carora "... dreptul la munca cuprinde dreptul pe care il are orice persoana de a obtine posibilitatea sa-si castige existenta printr-o munca liber-aleasa sau acceptata", iar statele au obligatia garantarii acestui drept.
    Prevederile art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997, limitand activitatea cadrelor didactice la cel mult doua norme, contravin dispozitiilor constitutionale citate.
    De asemenea, textul criticat incalca si dispozitiile art. 49 din legea fundamentala, care reglementeaza expres si limitativ in ce cazuri exercitiul unor drepturi sau libertati poate fi ingradit. Acestea sunt: apararea sigurantei nationale, a ordinii, a sanatatii ori a moralei publice, a drepturilor si libertatilor cetatenesti, desfasurarea instructiei penale si prevenirea consecintelor unei calamitati naturale ori ale unui sinistru deosebit de grav. Or, nici unul dintre aceste cazuri nu motiveaza restrictia instituita prin art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997.
    Pe de alta parte, prin restrictia impusa se aduce atingere si principiului autonomiei universitare, instituit prin art. 32 alin. (6) din Constitutie, deoarece interdictia angajarii de cadre universitare, in conditiile art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997, afecteaza desfasurarea procesului de invatamant in institutiile de invatamant superior de stat sau private, care functioneaza legal.
    Ingradirea prevazuta de textul atacat contravine si principiului egalitatii cetatenilor in fata legii, reglementat de art. 16 alin. (1) din Constitutie, deoarece cadrele universitare ar fi astfel intr-o situatie de inferioritate fata de alte categorii de salariati care pot presta activitati prin cumul si pentru care nu exista restrictii.
    Limitarea activitatii cadrelor didactice la un numar redus de norme didactice, pe motiv ca astfel se poate asigura un invatamant de calitate, nu poate fi retinuta, deoarece nu numarul de norme confera, prin el insusi, calitatea prestatiei unui cadru didactic universitar, ci calificarea profesionala, experienta didactica si seriozitatea cu care fiecare profesor isi realizeaza menirea.
    In acelasi sens Curtea Constitutionala s-a pronuntat si prin Decizia nr. 114/1994, constatand ca art. 32 din Legea nr. 88/1993, care prevedea o restrictie asemanatoare, este neconstitutional. Cum, potrivit art. 145 alin. (2) din Constitutie, deciziile Curtii Constitutionale sunt obligatorii, la elaborarea si adoptarea Legii nr. 128/1997 ar fi fost necesar sa se aiba in vedere decizia mai sus citata.
    Fata de toate aceste considerente, exceptia de neconstitutionalitate urmeaza a fi admisa, textul art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997 fiind neconstitutional.

    Ca urmare, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si al art. 25 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate invocata de Beleiu Gheorghe in Dosarul nr. 16.960/1997 al Judecatoriei Sectorului 1 Bucuresti si constata ca dispozitiile art. 93 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 128/1997 privind Statutul personalului didactic sunt neconstitutionale.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din 10 februarie 1998.

        PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
           prof. univ. dr. IOAN MURARU

                                Magistrat asistent,
                                Florentina Geangu



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