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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 1 din 23 februarie 2004

ACT EMIS DE: INALTA CURTE DE CASATIE SI JUSTITIE - SECTIILE UNITE

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 404 din  6 mai 2004


SmartCity3


    Sub presedintia presedintelui Inaltei Curti de Casatie si Justitie, Paul Florea, s-a luat in examinare recursul in interesul legii, declarat de procurorul general al Parchetului de pe langa Inalta Curte de Casatie si Justitie, cu privire la limitele investirii instantei penale cu judecarea actiunii civile, alaturata celei penale prin constituirea persoanei vatamate ca parte civila, in cazul infractiunilor cu efecte complexe, cum sunt cele de ucidere din culpa si de vatamare corporala din culpa savarsite de un conducator auto.
    Procurorul general al Parchetului de pe langa Inalta Curte de Casatie si Justitie a fost reprezentat de procurorul Nicoleta Eucarie, care a sustinut recursul in interesul legii in sensul in care a fost formulat.

    CURTEA,
deliberand asupra recursului in interesul legii, constata urmatoarele:
    In aplicarea dispozitiilor art. 14 si urmatoarele din Codul de procedura penala, instantele de judecata nu au un punct de vedere unitar, pronuntandu-se in mod diferit cu privire la limitele investirii instantei penale cu judecarea actiunii civile, alaturata celei penale prin constituirea persoanei vatamate ca parte civila, in cazul infractiunilor cu efecte complexe, cum sunt cele de ucidere din culpa si de vatamare corporala din culpa savarsite cu ocazia circulatiei pe drumurile publice.
    Astfel, unele instante au considerat ca in astfel de cazuri actiunea civila alaturata celei penale poate fi admisa numai cu privire la pretentiile formulate pentru prejudiciile cauzate prin infractiunea cu care a fost sesizata instanta, iar nu si pentru cele produse prin efectele secundare sau colaterale ale faptei, care nu au facut obiectul unei incadrari juridice distincte cu caracter penal.
    S-a apreciat ca acest mod de a proceda se impune, deoarece actiunea civila nu poate exceda limitelor cu care este investita instanta prin actiunea penala, cat timp ea este chemata sa se pronunte, sub aspect penal, numai cu privire la infractiunea ce face obiectul trimiterii in judecata.
    In fine, alte instante s-au pronuntat in sensul ca instanta investita cu judecarea actiunii penale in cazul infractiunilor cu efecte complexe, cum sunt cele de ucidere din culpa si de vatamare corporala din culpa savarsite cu ocazia circulatiei pe drumurile publice, este investita sa judece actiunea civila, alaturata celei penale prin constituirea persoanei vatamate ca parte civila, atat cu privire la pretentiile formulate in legatura cu decesul victimei sau cu vatamarile corporale suferite, cat si cu privire la pretentiile referitoare la bunurile distruse ori deteriorate ca urmare a aceleiasi fapte.
    Aceste din urma instante au procedat corect.
    Potrivit art. 14 alin. 1 - 3 din Codul de procedura penala, "actiunea civila are ca obiect tragerea la raspundere civila a inculpatului, precum si a partii responsabile civilmente", ea "poate fi alaturata actiunii penale in cadrul procesului penal, prin constituirea persoanei vatamate ca parte civila", iar "repararea pagubei se face potrivit dispozitiilor legii civile".
    Din aceasta ultima dispozitie a textului de lege mentionat rezulta ca repararea pagubei produse prin infractiune, in cadrul solutionarii actiunii civile alaturate celei penale, se face in conformitate cu prevederile din legea civila.
    Or, prin art. 998 din Codul civil, care constituie temeiul raspunderii civile delictuale, se prevede ca "orice fapta a omului, care cauzeaza altuia prejudiciu, obliga pe acela din a carui greseala s-a ocazionat, a-l repara".
    Tot astfel, potrivit art. 999 din Codul civil, prin care este reglementata raspunderea civila in caz de cvasidelicte, "omul este responsabil nu numai de prejudiciul ce a cauzat prin fapta sa, dar si de acela ce a cauzat prin neglijenta sau prin imprudenta sa".
    In raport cu aceste reglementari neechivoce, a caror aplicare nu este limitata prin vreo dispozitie a Codului de procedura penala referitoare la repararea pagubei in cadrul actiunii civile alaturate celei penale, este evident ca legiuitorul nu a urmarit sa ingradeasca in vreun fel posibilitatea persoanei vatamate, constituita parte civila, de a obtine o justa si integrala reparare a pagubei.
    De aceea, prin limitarea obiectului actiunii civile la daunele cauzate numai de efectele care sunt consecinta la care se face referire neechivoca prin textul legii penale incriminator al faptei deduse judecatii instantei penale, s-ar deturna insusi sensul si scopul unei astfel de actiuni, care consta in asigurarea unei juste si integrale reparari a prejudiciului cauzat.
    Imperativul bunei administrari a justitiei, care impune exercitarea concomitenta a celor doua actiuni, nu poate permite fragmentarea pretentiilor civile in functie de caracterul direct sau indirect al pagubelor produse, ca urmare a particularitatilor legaturii de cauzalitate dintre actul incriminat si efectele acestuia. O astfel de solutie ar contraveni insusi spiritului legii romane aplicabile si reglementarilor art. 6 paragraful 1 din Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale, potrivit carora orice persoana are dreptul la judecarea, in mod echitabil si intr-un termen rezonabil, de catre o instanta care sa hotarasca nu numai cu privire la temeinicia acuzatiei penale, ci si asupra incalcarii drepturilor si obligatiilor cu caracter civil.
    In raport cu aceste cerinte, chiar daca in art. 14 din Codul de procedura penala se are in vedere cazul tipic in care urmarea pagubitoare este unica si decurge, in intregul ei, din actiunea sau inactiunea ce constituie infractiunea dedusa judecatii, aceasta nu inseamna ca nu ar putea fi adoptata o alta solutie pentru unele situatii cu urmari pagubitoare multiple, la care legea nu se refera in mod expres, cum sunt cele create prin accidentele de circulatie, cand prin aceeasi fapta, de conducere culpabila a autovehiculului, sunt lezate, de regula, atat integritatea corporala a victimei, cat si bunurile acesteia.
    Cum in asemenea cazuri toate urmarile pagubitoare decurg din aceeasi fapta, unica, a inculpatului, desi aceasta constituie infractiune numai in raport cu unul dintre efectele produse, cum ar fi moartea sau vatamarea integritatii corporale a victimei, este rational si echitabil ca toate pretentiile de despagubiri sa fie solutionate in cadrul actiunii civile alaturate celei penale.
    In astfel de situatii este nu numai in interesul societatii de a se infaptui actul de justitie in mod complet si cat mai prompt posibil, dar si in interesul partilor ca judecarea actiunii civile sa fie realizata, in intregul ei, in fata instantei penale.
    Sub acest aspect, persoana vatamata este vadit interesata sa fie despagubita pentru intregul prejudiciu suferit, in cadrul aceluiasi proces, de catre instanta penala, unde actiunea sa civila poate fi solutionata in conditii de mai mare celeritate si cu garantii de administrare mai lesnicioasa si completa a probelor.
    Tot astfel, posibilitatile de a administra mai lesnicios probele, ca si de a-si concentra apararile il fac si pe inculpat sa fie interesat in solutionarea actiunii civile si a celei penale in fata aceleiasi instante.
    Este de subliniat ca prin solutionarea de catre aceeasi instanta a celor doua actiuni, determinate de savarsirea aceleiasi fapte, se asigura o mai prompta, temeinica si completa aflare a adevarului, prin aprecierea unitara a probelor, precum si evitarea pronuntarii de hotarari contradictorii.
    Asa fiind, nu se poate considera ca ar exista ratiuni ca prejudiciul unic suferit de victima prin savarsirea unei fapte penale, de asemenea, unica, sa fie fragmentat, iar competenta de solutionare a actiunii civile sa fie impartita intre doua instante - penala si civila - cu toate inconvenientele ce decurg din aceasta.
    O atare concluzie se impune a fi acceptata nu numai in cazul faptelor de ucidere din culpa si de vatamare corporala din culpa, savarsite de conducatori auto cu ocazia circulatiei pe drumurile publice, ci si in orice alte situatii de comitere a unei fapte complexe, cu mai multe consecinte pagubitoare pentru aceeasi victima, cum ar fi in cazul infractiunilor de omor intentionat si de vatamare corporala intentionata, care au avut ca urmare si degradarea imbracamintei victimei, sau in cazul unei talharii prin savarsirea careia au fost degradate si unele bunuri ale persoanei vatamate, ce nu au fost sustrase.
    In consecinta, in temeiul art. 26 lit. b) din Legea Curtii Supreme de Justitie nr. 56/1993, republicata, precum si al art. 414^2 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala, urmeaza a se admite recursul in interesul legii si a se stabili, in aplicarea art. 14 din Codul de procedura penala si a art. 998 din Codul civil, ca instanta penala investita cu judecarea actiunii penale in cazul infractiunilor cu efecte complexe, cum sunt cele de ucidere din culpa si de vatamare corporala din culpa savarsite de un conducator auto, este investita sa judece actiunea civila, alaturata celei penale prin constituirea persoanei vatamate ca parte civila, atat cu privire la pretentiile formulate in legatura cu decesul victimei sau cu vatamarile corporale suferite, cat si cu privire la pretentiile referitoare la bunurile distruse ori deteriorate ca urmare a aceleiasi fapte.

    Totodata, fata de prevederile art. 414^2 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, se va mentiona ca decizia este obligatorie.

    PENTRU ACESTE MOTIVE
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite recursul in interesul legii, declarat de procurorul general al Parchetului de pe langa Inalta Curte de Casatie si Justitie.
    In aplicarea dispozitiilor art. 14 din Codul de procedura penala si ale art. 998 din Codul civil, stabileste ca instanta penala investita cu judecarea actiunii penale in cazul infractiunilor cu efecte complexe, cum sunt cele de ucidere din culpa si de vatamare corporala din culpa savarsite de un conducator auto, este investita sa judece actiunea civila, alaturata celei penale prin constituirea persoanei vatamate ca parte civila, atat cu privire la pretentiile formulate in legatura cu decesul victimei sau cu vatamarile corporale suferite, cat si cu privire la pretentiile referitoare la bunurile distruse ori deteriorate ca urmare a aceleiasi fapte.
    Obligatorie, potrivit art. 414^2 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica la data de 23 februarie 2004.

         PRESEDINTELE INALTEI CURTI DE CASATIE SI JUSTITIE,
                         PAUL FLOREA

                              Prim magistrat asistent,
                              Ioan Raileanu



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ANONIM a comentat OUG 96 2021
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ANONIM a comentat Decizia 2 2007
    GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK.VIA: dromokpo@gmail.com This is my testimony of life that I will tell everyone. I have been married for 25 years Another woman had a spell to get me away from my lover, My husband left me and the children and we suffered for 2 years until I saw post about where this man Dr Omokpo has helped so many people recover their broken marriages and relationships   to get their ex lovers back. I decided to send him a message about my broken marriage and family  about how my husband left me and  for him to help me bring back my loving husband home, This great man told me what to do and I followed him as he instructed. After 48 hours, as he told me, I saw a car enter the compound. I was shocked when I saw my husband. As I share my testimony with you my husband came back to me and the kids and that's why I'm happy to put all of you to meet this man for solutions to your problem and bring your lover back to you and mend your broken marriage or your relationship restored back to happiness as you wished. Contact this great man via: dromokpo@gmail.com
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