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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 97 din 30 aprilie 1997

cu privire la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor referitoare la "autoritati administrative" din Legea contenciosului administrativ nr. 29/1990

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 210 din 27 august 1997


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    Ioan Muraru           - presedinte
    Viorel Mihai Ciobanu  - judecator
    Nicolae Popa          - judecator
    Victor Dan Zlatescu   - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica    - judecator
    Raul Petrescu         - procuror
    Gabriela Dragomirescu - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol, solutionarea recursului declarat de Belcin Victor impotriva Deciziei Curtii Constitutionale nr. 141 din 20 noiembrie 1996.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta publica din 15 aprilie 1997, in prezenta reprezentantului Ministerului Public, in lipsa partilor legal citate, si au fost consemnate in incheierea de la acea data, cand Curtea, avand nevoie de timp pentru a delibera, a amanat pronuntarea pentru data de 22 aprilie 1997 si apoi, pentru data de 30 aprilie 1997.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Curtea de apel Galati, prin Incheierea din 16 februarie 1996, a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor Legii nr. 29/1990 referitoare la autoritati administrative, ridicata de Belcin Victor in Dosarul nr. 1.926/1995.
    Prin Decizia nr. 141 din 20 noiembrie 1996, Curtea Constitutionala a respins exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor referitoare la autoritati administrative din Legea contenciosului administrativ nr. 29/1990. Pentru a pronunta aceasta solutie, s-a retinut ca exista intr-adevar o deosebire intre notiunea de autoritate administrativa si cea de autoritate publica prevazuta de Constitutie, dar aceasta neconcordanta nu poate fi rezolvata de catre Curtea Constitutionala, intrucat ar insemna sa faca opera de legislator pozitiv. Pentru ca Legea contenciosului administrativ sa se aplice si autoritatilor publice este necesara o interventie legislativa care sa stabileasca limitele si conditiile de exercitare a controlului de catre instantele de contencios administrativ. S-a retinut, de asemenea, ca toate conditiile si limitele prevazute de Legea nr. 29/1990 pentru exercitarea dreptului persoanei vatamate sunt conforme art. 48 alin. (2) din Constitutie.
    Impotriva acestei decizii, a declarat recurs, in termen legal, Belcin Victor, pentru urmatoarele motive:
    - desi insusi completul de fond a retinut ca Legea nr. 29/1990 nu este in concordanta cu Constitutia, totusi exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a Legii nr. 29/1990 a fost respinsa;
    - prin solutia pronuntata se exclud de la control si de la repararea prejudiciilor actele administrative ale altor autoritati publice decat cele administrative, incalcandu-se astfel prevederile art. 1 alin. (3), art. 15 alin. (1), art. 16 alin. (1), art. 24 alin. (1), art. 31 alin. (2), art. 47 alin. (4), art. 48 alin. (1), art. 51 si art. 150 alin. (1) din Constitutie;
    - este fara fundament si inacceptabila solutia ca printr-o lege viitoare sa se reglementeze controlul judecatoresc al actelor administrative emise de celelalte autoritati publice, deoarece: in continuare actele autoritatilor publice sunt excluse de la control si de la posibilitatea de reparare a prejudiciilor; s-ar refuza armonizarea Legii nr. 29/1990 cu prevederile Constitutiei; in prezent se refuza aplicarea prevederilor imperative ale art. 51 si 150 alin. (1) din Constitutie; se incalca in mod vadit drepturile si libertatile cetatenesti, dar, mai ales, se creeaza imposibilitatea apararii intereselor personale pe calea justitiei impotriva actelor administrative ale autoritatilor publice;
    - in prezent Legea nr. 29/1990 este inoperanta pentru actele administrative ale altor autoritati publice decat cele administrative, incalcandu-se astfel accesul liber la justitie;
    - adoptarea Legii nr. 29/1990 cu majoritate de voturi nu poate duce la concluzia ca aceasta este exclusa de la controlul de constitutionalitate;
    - nu se poate prezuma constitutionalitatea Legii nr. 29/1990, pentru ca ea a fost modificata prin Legea nr. 59/1993; se incearca a se sustine si dovedi ca Legea nr. 59/1993 modifica Constitutia, desi, potrivit art. 51, legea fundamentala este suprema si obligatorie de aplicat inaintea oricarei alte legi;
    - practica Curtii Constitutionale in domeniul legilor preconstitutionale, ilustrata de altfel printr-o singura decizie, nu este izvor de drept;
    - se sustine ca Legea nr. 29/1990 nu ingradeste dreptul la petitionare si informatie, desi aceasta lege nu reglementeaza si posibilitatea atacarii in justitie a actelor administrative ale altor autoritati publice.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere decizia atacata, motivele de recurs invocate, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, prevederile art. 1 alin. (1) din Legea contenciosului administrativ nr. 29/1990, raportate la dispozitiile Constitutiei si ale Legii nr. 47/1992, constata urmatoarele:
    Prin recursul declarat de Belcin Victor impotriva Deciziei Curtii Constitutionale nr. 141 din 20 noiembrie 1996 sunt formulate mai multe motive de casare. In esenta, toate privesc acelasi aspect si anume neconstitutionalitatea art. 1 alin. (1) din Legea contenciosului administrativ nr. 29/1990, care limiteaza controlul instantelor de contencios administrativ la actele administrative emise de autoritatile administrative, in timp ce art. 48 alin. (1) din Constitutie are un continut mai larg, deoarece se refera la autoritatile publice.
    Potrivit art. 1 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 29/1990, actiunea in contencios administrativ se poate introduce numai impotriva actelor emise de autoritatile administrative.
    Textul in discutie este anterior Constitutiei. Legea fundamentala prevede in art. 48 alin. (1): "Persoana vatamata intr-un drept al sau de o autoritate publica, printr-un act administrativ sau prin nesolutionarea in termenul legal a unei cereri, este indreptatita sa obtina recunoasterea dreptului pretins, anularea actului si repararea pagubei".
    Astfel cum insasi decizia atacata a remarcat, intre notiunea de autoritati administrative, folosita in lege, si cea de autoritati publice pe care o utilizeaza Constitutia exista o deosebire de continut. Este evident ca notiunea constitutionala este mai larga decat cea folosita in legea mentionata, ea incluzand-o pe aceasta.
    In felul acesta se vadeste o contradictie intre legea atacata si Constitutie. Potrivit art. 150 alin. (1) din Constitutie, legile si toate celelalte acte normative raman in vigoare in masura in care ele nu contravin dispozitiilor legii fundamentale.
    In cazul de fata, textul de lege fiind mai restrans decat formularea constitutionala este evident ca el trebuie considerat modificat in sensul ca expresia autoritati administrative este abrogata, ea fiind inlocuita cu cea de autoritati publice.
    Recursul se invedereaza astfel a fi intemeiat. Ca urmare, decizia atacata va fi desfiintata, iar in fond, exceptia de neconstitutionalitate va fi admisa, constatandu-se ca art. 1 alin. (1) din Legea contenciosului administrativ nr. 29/1990 este abrogat in ce priveste trimiterea la autoritati administrative, urmand sa-si gaseasca aplicare directa prevederea art. 48 alin. (1) din Constitutie, care se refera la autoritati publice.
    In aceste conditii, s-ar impune ca legiuitorul ordinar, in dezvoltarea principiului constitutional, sa intervina pentru a determina continutul si limitele acestui concept.
    Fata de cele aratate, in temeiul dispozitiilor art. 144 lit. c) si ale art. 145 alin. (2) din Constitutie, ale art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), ale art. 25 si ale art. 26 din Legea nr. 47/1992,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite recursul, desfiinteaza Decizia nr. 141 din 20 noiembrie 1996, iar pe fond, admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate si, in temeiul art. 150 alin. (1) din Constitutie, constata ca art. 1 alin. (1) din Legea contenciosului administrativ nr. 29/1990 este abrogat in ce priveste referirea la autoritati administrative, urmand sa-si gaseasca aplicare directa prevederea art. 48 alin. (1) din Constitutie care se refera la autoritate publica.
    Definitiva.
    Pronuntata in sedinta din 30 aprilie 1997.

               PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
                   Prof. univ. dr. IOAN MURARU

                                   Magistrat asistent,
                                   Gabriela Dragomirescu



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