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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 5 din  4 februarie 1999

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 95 din  5 martie 1999


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    Lucian Mihai           - presedinte
    Costica Bulai          - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor         - judecator
    Ioan Muraru            - judecator
    Nicolae Popa           - judecator
    Lucian Stangu          - judecator
    Florin Bucur Vasilescu - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica     - judecator
    Ion Bonini             - procuror
    Florentina Geangu      - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol, solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal, ridicata de Garba Vasile in Dosarul nr. 568/1998 al Judecatoriei Insuratei din judetul Braila.
    La apelul nominal s-a prezentat Garba Vasile, personal si asistat de avocatul Ciubotariu Mihai, in baza imputernicirii avocatiale depuse la dosar, lipsa fiind Societatea Comerciala "Stanriz" - S.A. din Stancuta, judetul Braila, legal citata.
    Fata de declaratia partilor ca nu au cereri prealabile de formulat se constata cauza in stare de judecata si se da cuvantul in fond.
    Avocatul Ciubotariu Mihai arata ca inculpatul Garba Vasile a fost trimis in judecata pentru savarsirea infractiunii de gestiune frauduloasa, prevazuta la art. 214 din Codul penal, text legal care incalca dispozitiile art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie, potrivit carora proprietatea privata este ocrotita in mod egal de lege, indiferent de titular. Or, potrivit art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal, daca bunul este proprietate privata, cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte proprietatea statului, actiunea penala pentru fapta prevazuta la alin. 1 se pune in miscare la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate. Prin urmare, textul atacat face o deosebire intre proprietatea privata apartinand persoanei fizice si proprietatea privata a statului, ceea ce contravine prevederii constitutionale mentionate. In concluzie, se solicita admiterea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate.
    Reprezentantul Ministerului Public, avand cuvantul, arata ca dispozitiile art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal sunt neconstitutionale, deoarece pentru proprietatea privata prevad un regim juridic diferentiat sub aspectul plangerii prealabile. Se incalca astfel prevederile art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie, care se refera la ocrotirea in mod egal atat a proprietatii apartinand persoanelor fizice ori persoanelor juridice de drept privat, cat si a proprietatii private a statului. Rezulta ca actiunea penala trebuie sa se puna in miscare doar la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate si atunci cand bunul este in intregime sau in parte in proprietatea privata a statului. Fata de cele aratate se solicita admiterea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Judecatoria Insuratei, prin Incheierea din 4 noiembrie 1998, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 568/1998, a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal, ridicata de Garba Vasile.
    Prin rechizitoriul Parchetului de pe langa Judecatoria Insuratei inculpatul Garba Vasile a fost trimis in judecata pentru savarsirea infractiunii de gestiune frauduloasa, prevazuta la art. 214 din Codul penal, retinandu-se in sarcina sa ca, in calitate de sef al fermei nr. 4 din cadrul Societatii Comerciale "Stanriz" - S.A. Stancuta, judetul Braila, a aprobat efectuarea unor lucrari si folosirea unor utilaje fara plata, producand astfel cu rea-credinta un prejudiciu.
    In fata instantei judecatoresti, la termenul de judecata din 4 noiembrie 1998, inculpatul Garba Vasile a ridicat exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal, sustinand ca acest text legal contravine dispozitiilor art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie, deoarece face o "deosebire intre proprietatea privata apartinand persoanei fizice si proprietatea privata a statului". Aceasta deosebire ar rezulta din faptul ca "in cazul in care partea vatamata este o societate cu capital integral sau in parte de stat nu se poate face aplicarea prevederilor art. 131 si 132 din Codul penal (lipsa plangerii prealabile si impacarea partilor)".
    Judecatoria Insuratei, exprimandu-si opinia, a considerat ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate invocata este intemeiata.
    Potrivit art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, s-au solicitat punctele de vedere ale presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata, deoarece art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal stabileste o norma de alegere pentru partea vatamata, atunci cand aceasta nu este statul, considerand-o singura in masura sa aprecieze daca este cazul sa faca plangere prealabila in vederea declansarii actiunii penale. In ceea ce priveste proprietatea statului, in cazul savarsirii infractiunii de gestiune frauduloasa, legiuitorul a stabilit o procedura proprie pentru declansarea urmaririi penale, organele de urmarire penala putandu-se sesiza si din oficiu, in paralel insa cu obligatia partii vatamate de a sesiza organele in drept. Prin aceasta prevedere legala s-a dorit ca ocrotirea acestui tip de proprietate sa nu fie lasata la aprecierea partilor vatamate. Cu referire la regimul sanctionator, se arata ca art. 214 din Codul penal nu face nici un fel de distinctie, sanctiunea fiind aceeasi, proprietatea privata fiind ocrotita in mod egal, indiferent de titularul dreptului de proprietate.
    In punctul sau de vedere Guvernul arata ca, desi dispozitiile art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal au fost introduse prin Legea nr. 140/1996, ele nu au fost corelate cu prevederile art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie. Astfel alin. 3 al art. 214 din Codul penal prevede un regim juridic diferentiat sub aspectul incidentei plangerii prealabile, deoarece actiunea penala se pune in miscare la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate in cazul "proprietatii private particulare" si din oficiu cand "priveste proprietatea privata a statului". Pentru aceste considerente, se apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate invocata este intemeiata.
    Presedintele Senatului nu a comunicat punctul sau de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctele de vedere ale presedintelui Camerei Deputatilor si Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, sustinerile autorului exceptiei, concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale atacate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei si ale Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Potrivit art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si art. 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, Curtea Constitutionala este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia ridicata, fiind legal sesizata.
    Critica de neconstitutionalitate priveste art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal, potrivit caruia: "Daca bunul este proprietate privata, cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte proprietatea statului, actiunea penala pentru fapta prevazuta in alin. 1 se pune in miscare la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate."
    Rezulta ca actiunea penala impotriva celui care, prin gestiune frauduloasa, a pricinuit o paguba unei persoane, cu ocazia administrarii sau conservarii bunurilor acesteia, poate fi pusa in miscare numai in baza plangerii prealabile a persoanei vatamate. In situatia in care bunul este proprietatea privata a statului, punerea in miscare a actiunii penale nu este conditionata de existenta plangerii prealabile a persoanei vatamate, ci se declanseaza din oficiu.
    Curtea Constitutionala constata ca prin art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal se face o diferentiere neconstitutionala intre protectia proprietatii private a statului si protectia proprietatii private a altor subiecte de drept, atunci cand se precizeaza ca, daca "bunul este proprietate privata, cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului, actiunea penala se pune in miscare la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate". Aceste dispozitii contravin prevederilor art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie, care asigura o egala ocrotire a proprietatii apartinand persoanelor fizice ori persoanelor juridice de drept privat, precum si a proprietatii private a statului. Asa fiind, in privinta bunurilor care formeaza obiectul proprietatii private, statul nu poate beneficia de o ocrotire juridica diferita de aceea a persoanelor fizice sau a persoanelor juridice de drept privat.
    In consecinta, in temeiul art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal, punerea in miscare a actiunii penale se poate face numai la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate, atat in cazul in care bunul apartine persoanelor fizice sau persoanelor juridice de drept privat, cat si atunci cand bunul este in intregime sau in parte proprietatea privata a statului.
    In sensul celor aratate este si Decizia Curtii Constitutionale nr. 177 din 15 decembrie 1998, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 77 din 24 februarie 1999.

    Pentru considerentele expuse, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si 25 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate, ridicata de Garba Vasile in Dosarul nr. 568/1998 al Judecatoriei Insuratei din judetul Braila, si constata ca dispozitia "cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului" prevazuta la art. 214 alin. 3 din Codul penal este neconstitutionala.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 4 februarie 1999.

          PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
                       LUCIAN MIHAI

                              Magistrat asistent,
                              Florentina Geangu



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