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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 429 din 13 septembrie 2005

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 893 din  6 octombrie 2005


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    Ioan Vida              - presedinte
    Nicolae Cochinescu     - judecator
    Aspazia Cojocaru       - judecator
    Constantin Doldur      - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor         - judecator
    Acsinte Gaspar         - judecator
    Petre Ninosu           - judecator
    Ion Predescu           - judecator
    Serban Viorel Stanoiu  - judecator
    Ion Tiuca              - procuror
    Daniela Ramona Maritiu - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol se afla solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila, exceptie ridicata de Ion Matei in Dosarul nr. 4.391/2004 al Judecatoriei Sectorului 3 Bucuresti.
    La apelul nominal raspunde personal Ionel Dumitru, lipsa fiind celelalte parti, fata de care procedura de citare este legal indeplinita.
    Cauza fiind in stare de judecata, partea prezenta solicita respingerea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate.
    Reprezentantul Ministerului Public pune concluzii de respingere a exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate, aratand ca instanta de contencios constitutional s-a mai pronuntat asupra constitutionalitatii acestor dispozitii, statuand prin Decizia nr. 379 din 14 octombrie 2003, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 785 din 7 noiembrie 2003, ca acestea sunt constitutionale.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, retine urmatoarele:
    Prin Incheierea din 16 martie 2005, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 4.391/2004, Judecatoria Sectorului 3 Bucuresti a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila.
    In motivarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate autorul acesteia sustine ca dispozitiile art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila sunt neconstitutionale, deoarece contravin prevederilor art. 44 alin. (1) din Constitutie. In acest sens arata ca, prin posibilitatile oferite instantei de textul de lege criticat, dreptul de proprietate al contestatorului-debitor (autor al exceptiei) asupra unui imobil este afectat deoarece permite intimatului-creditor sa se indestuleze de pe urma acestui imobil pentru o creanta cu care nu are nici o legatura.
    Judecatoria Sectorului 3 Bucuresti apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata, deoarece cererea de impartire a bunurilor comune, formulata de catre creditor, in cadrul executarii silite, conform art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila, nu aduce atingere dreptului de proprietate al contestatorului-debitor, fiind o deposedare cu cauza, ce se realizeaza in scopul satisfacerii creantei pe care acesta o are impotriva debitorului care nu a inteles sa-si execute de bunavoie obligatia de plata.
    Potrivit prevederilor art. 30 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, incheierea de sesizare a fost comunicata presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului, Guvernului si Avocatului Poporului, pentru a-si formula punctele de vedere cu privire la exceptia ridicata.
    Guvernul apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata. In acest sens arata ca art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila reglementeaza calea procedurala prin care creditorul poate sa-si realizeze un drept recunoscut de lege, si anume formuland, in cadrul unei contestatii la executare, cererea de a se imparti bunurile pe care debitorul le are in proprietate comuna, in scopul de a se determina in concret care bunuri sau alte valori care pot fi urmarite apartin numai debitorului, pentru a fi supuse urmaririi, in virtutea dreptului de gaj general recunoscut creditorilor de art. 1718 din Codul civil. Astfel, textul de lege criticat ofera posibilitatea creditorilor sa treaca la executarea silita, al carei obiect il pot constitui doar bunurile debitorului, asigurand totodata protejarea intereselor patrimoniale ale coproprietarilor debitorilor care nu sunt parte in raportul juridic supus judecatii, respectiv in raportul de obligatie fata de creditorul urmaritor. In acest sens Curtea Constitutionala s-a pronuntat prin Decizia nr. 379 din 14 octombrie 2003, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 785 din 7 noiembrie 2003.
    Avocatul Poporului apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata. In acest sens arata ca textul de lege criticat nu aduce atingere dreptului de proprietate, ci, dimpotriva, da expresie acestuia intr-o maniera specifica. Departe de a constitui o atingere a dreptului subiectiv in sine, asemenea reglementari creeaza conditiile indispensabile valorificarii acestuia, prin posibilitatea data creditorului de a cere impartirea bunurilor proprietate comuna, in scopul satisfacerii creantei sale impotriva debitorului care nu a inteles sa o execute de bunavoie.
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere cu privire la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctele de vedere ale Guvernului si Avocatului Poporului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, sustinerile partii prezente, concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale criticate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei, precum si dispozitiile Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Curtea Constitutionala a fost legal sesizata si este competenta, potrivit dispozitiilor art. 146 lit. d) din Constitutie, republicata, ale art. 1 alin. (2), art. 2, 3, 10 si 29 din Legea nr. 47/1992, sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata.
    Obiectul exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate il constituie dispozitiile art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila, introdus prin Ordonanta de urgenta a Guvernului nr. 138/2000, ordonanta publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 479 din 2 octombrie 2000.
    Textul de lege criticat are urmatorul continut:
    - Art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila: "Impartirea bunurilor proprietate comuna poate fi hotarata, la cererea partii interesate, si in cadrul judecarii contestatiei la executare."
    In sustinerea neconstitutionalitatii acestor dispozitii legale autorul exceptiei invoca incalcarea prevederilor art. 44 alin. (1) din Constitutie, care au urmatorul continut: "Dreptul de proprietate, precum si creantele asupra statului, sunt garantate. Continutul si limitele acestor drepturi sunt stabilite de lege."
    Examinand exceptia de neconstitutionalitate, Curtea constata ca, dupa urmarirea bunurilor proprii, creditorul personal va putea cere imparteala bunurilor comune, in acest fel bunurile atribuite fiecarui sot devenind bunuri proprii si putand forma obiectul urmaririi silite din partea creditorului. Prin Decizia nr. 379 din 14 octombrie 2003, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 785 din 7 noiembrie 2003, Curtea a statuat ca dispozitiile art. 400^1 asigura, pe de o parte, protejarea intereselor patrimoniale ale acelor coproprietari care nu sunt parte in raportul juridic supus judecatii, iar pe de alta parte, permit creditorilor sa treaca la executarea silita al carei obiect il pot constitui doar bunurile debitorului. Asa fiind, existenta proprietatii comune impiedica temporar realizarea executarii silite, numai dupa finalizarea procedurii de imparteala a bunurilor indivize executarea putand continua cu privire la bunurile ce apartin exclusiv debitorului urmarit. Prin efectul partajului, creditorul pastreaza posibilitatea fie de a urmari intregul bun care a facut obiectul partajului, daca acesta a fost atribuit debitorului, fie sulta la care a fost obligat coproprietarul nedebitor caruia i-a fost atribuit bunul, fie partea cuvenita debitorului din pretul obtinut din vanzarea intregului imobil. Asa fiind, Curtea retine ca reglementarea criticata are ca finalitate protejarea intereselor coproprietarilor nedebitori, pusi, in acest mod, la adapost de riscul de a fi obligati sa participe la achitarea unei datorii care nu le incumba, efectuand astfel o plata nedatorata.
    Prin urmare, se constata ca textul de lege criticat nu aduce atingere dreptului de proprietate, consacrat de art. 44 din Constitutie, critica autorului exceptiei fiind neintemeiata.

    Pentru considerentele expuse mai sus, in temeiul art. 146 lit. d) si al art. 147 alin. (4) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 1 - 3, al art. 11 alin. (1) lit. A.d) si al art. 29 din Legea nr. 47/1992,

    CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Respinge exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 400^1 din Codul de procedura civila, exceptie ridicata de Ion Matei in Dosarul nr. 4.391/2004 al Judecatoriei Sectorului 3 Bucuresti.
    Definitiva si general obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 13 septembrie 2005.

          PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
              prof. univ. dr. IOAN VIDA

                              Magistrat asistent,
                              Daniela Ramona Maritiu



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