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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 24 din 23 februarie 1999

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 136 din  1 aprilie 1999


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    Lucian Mihai           - presedinte
    Costica Bulai          - judecator
    Constantin Doldur      - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor         - judecator
    Ioan Muraru            - judecator
    Nicolae Popa           - judecator
    Lucian Stangu          - judecator
    Florin Bucur Vasilescu - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica     - judecator
    Ion Bonini             - procuror
    Florentina Geangu      - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol, solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala, ridicata de Closca Ilie in Dosarul nr. 5.656/1997 al Judecatoriei Giurgiu.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta publica din data de 21 ianuarie 1999, fiind consemnate in incheierea din acea data, cand Curtea, avand nevoie de timp pentru a delibera, a amanat pronuntarea pentru data de 26 ianuarie 1999 si apoi pentru 4 februarie 1999 si, respectiv, pentru 23 februarie 1999. Concluziile procurorului au fost de admitere a exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate, in sensul constatarii ca prevederile art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala incalca art. 24 din Constitutie.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Prin Incheierea din 30 ianuarie 1998, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 5.656/1997, Judecatoria Giurgiu a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala, ridicata de Closca Ilie. In motivarea exceptiei se arata ca aceste prevederi incalca art. 24 din Constitutie privind dreptul la aparare, deoarece procurorul are obligatia de a-l asculta pe invinuit si de a-i prezenta materialul de urmarire penala, in vederea punerii in miscare a actiunii penale, numai daca socoteste necesar acest lucru. Or, pe aceasta cale se ajunge la trimiterea in judecata fara ca persoana in cauza "... sa stie si fara sa ia cunostinta de acuzatiile care i se aduc".
    Exprimandu-si opinia asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate ridicate, instanta considera ca dreptul constitutional la aparare este garantat, daca se are in vedere "intreg contextul art. 255 - 257 din Codul de procedura penala, invinuitul avand conditii sa-si asigure apararea".
    Potrivit art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, au fost solicitate punctele de vedere ale presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    In punctul de vedere al Guvernului se apreciaza ca textul legal atacat este constitutional, pentru ca art. 250 si urmatoarele din Codul de procedura penala asigura dreptul la aparare al invinuitului, inclusiv in faza urmaririi penale. Se arata astfel ca "... prezentarea materialului de urmarire penala este obligatorie in cazul in care a fost pusa in miscare actiunea penala", iar in caz contrar, doar daca procurorul socoteste necesar acest fapt, evitandu-se dificultati ce ar putea aparea in cazul in care invinuitul se sustrage de la cercetari. In acelasi punct de vedere se recunoaste insa ca "... pentru celelalte situatii in care invinuitul poate fi chemat in fata organului judiciar, prezentarea materialului de urmarire penala trebuie sa fie obligatorie in toate cazurile". Se mentioneaza, in final, ca "... problema corelarii acestui articol cu celelalte texte din Codul de procedura penala va fi avuta in vedere cu ocazia elaborarii proiectului de lege pentru modificarea si completarea Codului de procedura penala".
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale atacate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei, precum si dispozitiile Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Potrivit art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si art. 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, Curtea Constitutionala a fost legal sesizata si este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata.
    Critica de neconstitutionalitate priveste dispozitiile art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala, potrivit carora: "Procurorul primind dosarul, daca socoteste necesar, cheama pe invinuit si ii prezinta materialul de urmarire penala potrivit dispozitiilor art. 250 si urmatoarele, care se aplica in mod corespunzator."
    Autorul exceptiei sustine ca aceste dispozitii contravin art. 24 din Constitutie, conform caruia "Dreptul la aparare este garantat. In tot cursul procesului, partile au dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu".
    Examinand cauza, Curtea Constitutionala constata ca textul criticat face parte din capitolul consacrat terminarii urmaririi penale si are doua subcapitole: unul dedicat urmaririi fara punerea in miscare a actiunii penale, iar celalalt dedicat urmaririi cu actiunea penala pusa in miscare.
    Prevederile art. 257 sunt consecutive art. 255 si 256, in care se reglementeaza urmarirea fara punerea in miscare a actiunii penale, respectiv finalizarea cercetarii penale de catre organul de cercetare penala. Astfel, potrivit art. 255 din Codul de procedura penala, daca nu a fost pusa in miscare actiunea penala si organul de cercetare penala constata ca exista invinuit si ca sunt suficiente probe impotriva lui, procedeaza la o noua ascultare, aducandu-i la cunostinta invinuirea si intrebandu-l daca are noi mijloace de aparare.
    In cazul in care invinuitul nu solicita probe noi sau daca probele propuse nu sunt intemeiate, cercetarea se considera terminata, dosarul urmand a fi inaintat, potrivit art. 256 din Codul de procedura penala, procurorului, cu un referat in care se consemneaza rezultatul cercetarii si propunerile ce se impun, precizandu-se, daca este cazul, sa se procedeze la trimiterea in judecata. Organul care decide asupra propunerilor facute este procurorul.
    In conformitate cu art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala - criticat sub aspectul constitutionalitatii in cauza de fata - procurorul, primind dosarul, cheama pe invinuit spre a-i prezenta materialul de urmarire penala, numai daca socoteste necesar, ceea ce presupune ca trimiterea in judecata se poate efectua legal si fara instiintarea invinuitului, considerandu-se ca aducerea la cunostinta a invinuirii de catre organul de cercetare penala, in temeiul art. 255 din Codul de procedura penala, ar fi suficienta.
    Rezulta ca problema constitutionalitatii art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala priveste in fapt obligatia, iar nu latitudinea, pentru procuror de a-l chema, si el, pe invinuit, chiar dupa ce organul de cercetare penala eventual a facut-o, pentru a-i prezenta din nou materialul de urmarire penala, fiind evident ca de aceasta data operatiunea respectiva nu se efectueaza in scopul completarii dosarului cu probele cerute de invinuit, ci pentru a i se aduce la cunostinta trimiterea sa in judecata prin intermediul rechizitoriului (art. 261 si 262 din Codul de procedura penala). Curtea Constitutionala constata ca dispozitiile art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala, in actuala redactare, contravin prevederilor art. 24 din Constitutie, potrivit caruia dreptul la aparare este garantat in tot cursul procesului, partile avand dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat ales sau numit din oficiu.
    Intr-adevar liberul exercitiu al dreptului de aparare este conditionat de chemarea invinuitului spre a i se aduce la cunostinta materialul probator ce statea la baza invinuirii sale. Desigur, organul de cercetare penala este obligat sa procedeze la ascultarea sa (art. 255 din Codul de procedura penala), dar scopul acesteia este completarea dosarului cu eventuale noi probe cerute de catre invinuit. Terminarea cercetarii penale se concretizeaza intr-un referat in care organul de cercetare are numai atributia de a propune procurorului, daca este cazul, emiterea rechizitoriului si sesizarea instantei de judecata. Raspunderea pentru luarea acestor masuri revine exclusiv procurorului.
    Or, daca procurorul are numai latitudinea, iar nu si obligatia chemarii invinuitului, inseamna ca cel mai important moment al urmaririi penale - trimiterea in judecata - se poate realiza fara ca invinuitul sa fie instiintat de catre procuror asupra invinuirii ce i se aduce. In aceste conditii invinuitul nu are posibilitatea sa fie asistat de catre un aparator si nici sa dispuna de timpul necesar pentru a-si pregati apararea, neavand cunostinta de solutia data de procuror in urma examinarii materialului primit de la organul de cercetare penala.
    Curtea Constitutionala constata ca, asa dupa cum rezulta si din punctul de vedere al Guvernului, dispozitiile art. 6 din Codul de procedura penala prevad ca dreptul la aparare este garantat in tot cursul procesului penal. Dar, in raport cu dispozitiile art. 257 din Codul de procedura penala, criticat in cauza de fata, s-ar putea considera ca cerinta textului cu caracter general al art. 6 este acoperita prin art. 255 din Codul de procedura penala si deci o noua ascultare a invinuitului nu ar mai fi necesara inaintea procurorului, ceea ce, potrivit celor de mai sus, ar conduce la incalcarea dreptului constitutional la aparare al oricarei persoane trimise in judecata penala.
    Pe de alta parte nu trebuie omis nici faptul ca, pana la rezolutia procurorului, dupa primirea dosarului de la organul de cercetare penala, invinuirea se afla in stare de simpla propunere care se cere validata de catre procuror; acesta are insa la dispozitie si alte solutii decat trimiterea in judecata. Este, de aceea, cu atat mai necesar ca rezolvarea cauzei sa se faca dupa chemarea invinuitului si dupa instiintarea sa despre punerea in miscare a actiunii penale, in prezenta aparatorului sau, care, alaturi de cel in cauza, poate determina sau influenta pronuntarea altei solutii de natura sa excluda trimiterea in instanta a dosarului (scoaterea de sub urmarire, incetarea urmaririi penale, clasarea etc.).
    Fata de cele aratate, Curtea Constitutionala constata ca dispozitia "... daca socoteste necesar ..." din art. 257 al Codului de procedura penala, de natura sa restranga exercitarea dreptului la aparare, contravine prevederilor art. 24 din Constitutie, fiind deci neconstitutionala. In consecinta, procurorul, primind dosarul, inainte de a dispune trimiterea in judecata, are obligatia, iar nu latitudinea, de a-l chema pe invinuit spre a-i prezenta materialul de urmarire penala, chiar daca acesta i-a fost adus la cunostinta de catre organul de cercetare penala, urmand a se aplica in mod corespunzator dispozitiile art. 250 - 254 din Codul de procedura penala.

    Pentru considerentele expuse, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si 25 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata de Closca Ilie in Dosarul nr. 5.656/1997 al Judecatoriei Giurgiu si constata ca dispozitia "... daca socoteste necesar..." din art. 257 al Codului de procedura penala este neconstitutionala.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 23 februarie 1999.

          PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
                    LUCIAN MIHAI

                           Magistrat asistent,
                           Florentina Geangu



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    GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK.VIA: dromokpo@gmail.com This is my testimony of life that I will tell everyone. I have been married for 25 years Another woman had a spell to get me away from my lover, My husband left me and the children and we suffered for 2 years until I saw post about where this man Dr Omokpo has helped so many people recover their broken marriages and relationships   to get their ex lovers back. I decided to send him a message about my broken marriage and family  about how my husband left me and  for him to help me bring back my loving husband home, This great man told me what to do and I followed him as he instructed. After 48 hours, as he told me, I saw a car enter the compound. I was shocked when I saw my husband. As I share my testimony with you my husband came back to me and the kids and that's why I'm happy to put all of you to meet this man for solutions to your problem and bring your lover back to you and mend your broken marriage or your relationship restored back to happiness as you wished. Contact this great man via: dromokpo@gmail.com
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