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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 143 din  5 octombrie 1999

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 585 din 30 noiembrie 1999


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    Lucian Mihai       - presedinte
    Costica Bulai      - judecator
    Constantin Doldur  - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor     - judecator
    Ioan Muraru        - judecator
    Nicolae Popa       - judecator
    Lucian Stangu      - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica - judecator
    Iuliana Nedelcu    - procuror
    Florentina Geangu  - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol se afla solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala, exceptie ridicata de Ionel Vaduva in Dosarul nr. 168/1999 al Curtii de Apel Pitesti - Sectia penala.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta publica din data de 23 septembrie 1999, in prezenta autorului exceptiei si a reprezentantului Ministerului Public, fiind consemnate in incheierea de la acea data, cand Curtea, avand nevoie de timp pentru a delibera, a amanat pronuntarea pentru data de 5 octombrie 1999.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Prin Incheierea din 16 martie 1999, Curtea de Apel Pitesti - Sectia penala a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala, ridicata de Ionel Vaduva in Dosarul nr. 168/1999 aflat pe rolul acelei instante.
    In opinia autorului exceptiei, dispozitiile alin. 5 al art. 120 din Codul de procedura penala sunt contrare prevederilor art. 16 alin. (1) si (2) din Constitutie, deoarece, "daca instanta de judecata, din considerente pe care nu este obligata sa le arate, dispune intr-o cauza efectuarea unei expertize la nivelul unui laborator criminalistic, partile din cauza respinsa nu mai beneficiaza de drepturile instituite prin dispozitiile art. 120 alin. 3 si 4 din Codul de procedura penala si daca, dimpotriva, o alta instanta dispune efectuarea, intr-o speta similara, a expertizei la orice alta institutie abilitata sa faca acest lucru, in afara celor prevazute in art. 119 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, partile din cauza respectiva beneficiaza de drepturile prevazute de art. 120 alin. 3 si 4 din Codul de procedura penala".
    Exprimandu-si opinia, instanta de judecata arata ca "dispozitiile legale criticate nu sunt neconstitutionale in raport cu prevederile art. 16 din Constitutie si ca alin. 3 si 4 ale art. 120 din Codul de procedura penala nu au aplicabilitate in cazul expertizei efectuate de experti oficiali, avand in vedere specialitatea acestora".
    Potrivit art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, au fost solicitate punctele de vedere ale presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    In punctul de vedere al Guvernului se apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata, deoarece, atunci cand expertiza este efectuata de un expert numit de organul de urmarire penala sau de instanta de judecata, fiecare parte are dreptul sa ceara ca un specialist recomandat de ea sa participe la efectuarea expertizei. Dar anumite expertize, datorita caracterului lor tehnic deosebit, nu pot fi efectuate decat in cadrul unor institutii de specialitate (serviciu medico-legal, institut sau laborator de criminalistica ori alt institut de specialitate). In aceste situatii nu organul judiciar numeste expertul, acesta fiind desemnat, pe linie de serviciu, in urma cererii adresate institutiei de specialitate in cadrul careia functioneaza. Efectuand expertiza in cadrul atributiilor de profil, expertul are calitatea de functionar public. Faptul ca, in asemenea situatii, partile nu pot recomanda un expert sa participe la realizarea expertizei nu este de natura sa le prejudicieze interesele si nici sa instituie un regim discriminatoriu intre ele, deoarece, ori de cate ori se va pune problema solicitarii unei expertize de acest fel, solutia va fi cea prevazuta la art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala, deci nu se pune problema tratamentului inegal in fata legii. In plus, se arata in aceeasi opinie, Codul de procedura penala cuprinde o serie de garantii care sa suplineasca imposibilitatea partilor de a-si desemna un expert, cum ar fi efectuarea unui supliment de expertiza sau posibilitatea de a cere lamuriri in legatura cu raportul de expertiza sau efectuarea unei noi expertize.
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, concluziile autorului exceptiei si ale procurorului, dispozitiile legale criticate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei, precum si dispozitiile Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    In temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si al art. 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, Curtea Constitutionala este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia cu care a fost legal sesizata.
    Critica de neconstitutionalitate priveste dispozitiile art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala. Privit in ansamblul sau, acest articol, cu denumirea marginala Lamuriri date expertului si partilor, prevede la alin. 1 si 2 ca organul judiciar, atunci cand dispune efectuarea unei expertize, fixeaza un termen la care sunt chemate partile si expertul desemnat de el, carora li se aduc la cunostinta obiectul expertizei si intrebarile la care expertul trebuie sa raspunda si li se pune in vedere ca au dreptul sa faca observatii cu privire la aceste intrebari si ca pot cere modificarea si completarea lor. In alin. 3 al aceluiasi articol se prevede ca "Partile mai sunt incunostintate ca au dreptul sa ceara numirea si a cate unui expert recomandat de fiecare dintre ele, care sa participe la efectuarea expertizei", iar in alin. 4 se prevede ca, "Dupa examinarea obiectiilor si cererilor facute de parti si expert, organul de urmarire penala sau instanta de judecata pune in vedere expertului termenul in care urmeaza a fi efectuata expertiza, incunostintandu-l totodata daca la efectuarea acesteia urmeaza sa participe partile". In sfarsit, in alin. 5 al art. 120, care face obiectul exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate, se prevede ca "Dispozitiile alin. 3 si 4 nu se aplica in cazul expertizei prevazute in art. 119 alin. 2". In ceea ce priveste articolul 119 din Codul de procedura penala, a carui denumire marginala este Experti oficiali, acesta cuprinde in alin. 2 dispozitii potrivit carora: "Cand expertiza urmeaza sa fie efectuata de un serviciu medico-legal, de un laborator de expertiza criminalistica sau de orice institut de specialitate, organul de urmarire penala ori instanta de judecata se adreseaza acestora pentru efectuarea expertizei".
    Autorul exceptiei sustine ca prevederile art. 120 alin. 5 contravin prevederilor art. 16 alin. (1) si (2) din Constitutie, conform carora: "(1) Cetatenii sunt egali in fata legii si a autoritatilor publice, fara privilegii si fara discriminari" si "(2) Nimeni nu este mai presus de lege". Incalcarea, prin dispozitiile legale criticate, a prevederilor art. 16 din Constitutie apare, in opinia autorului exceptiei, in cazul in care un organ judiciar, din considerente pe care nu trebuie sa le arate, dispune efectuarea unei expertize criminalistice, caz in care partile nu pot beneficia de drepturile instituite prin art. 120 alin. 2 si 3 din Codul de procedura penala, in timp ce o alta instanta de judecata, intr-o cauza similara, dispune efectuarea expertizei la o alta institutie abilitata, in afara celor prevazute la art. 119 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, caz in care partile in cauza vor beneficia de drepturile mentionate, ceea ce constituie o incalcare a principiului constitutional al egalitatii cetatenilor in fata legii.
    Examinand aceste sustineri, Curtea constata ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala, in raport cu prevederile art. 16 din Constitutie, este neintemeiata. Necesitatea efectuarii unei expertize in cursul procesului penal decurge din situatia de fapt, existenta in cauza, si tot aceasta situatie determina si necesitatea efectuarii expertizei de un serviciu medico-legal, de un laborator de expertiza criminalistica sau de orice institut de specialitate. Intr-o asemenea ipoteza organul judiciar este obligat, prin dispozitiile art. 119 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, sa se adreseze institutiei specializate in efectuarea expertizei, indiferent de vointa si interesele partilor in conflict. Iar in acest caz, potrivit dispozitiilor art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala, nu li se acorda partilor, oricare ar fi acestea, dreptul prevazut la art. 118 alin. 3 din Codul de procedura penala si recunoscut prin dispozitiile art. 120 alin. 3 si 4 din acelasi cod, de a cere ca un expert recomandat de ele sa participe la efectuarea expertizei. Aceste dispozitii legale restrictive nu au insa caracter discriminatoriu, deoarece ele se aplica, fara exceptie, tuturor partilor in cauza in care expertiza se efectueaza in institutii de specialitate, in conditiile prevazute la art. 119 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala. De aceea dispozitiile art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala nu vin in contradictie cu prevederile art. 16 din Constitutie, referitoare la egalitatea in drepturi.
    Curtea Constitutionala constata insa ca dispozitiile art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala contravin prevederilor art. 24 alin. (1) din Constitutie, potrivit carora "Dreptul la aparare este garantat". Intr-adevar, prin neacordarea in favoarea partilor dintr-un proces penal a dreptului de a cere ca un expert recomandat de ele sa participe la efectuarea expertizei, atunci cand aceasta urmeaza sa fie efectuata de o institutie specializata potrivit legii, se restrange in mod nejustificat dreptul la aparare al acestora, nesocotindu-se garantarea acestui drept prin Constitutie. Neparticiparea la efectuarea expertizei a expertului recomandat de partea interesata nu poate fi compensata prin dreptul acesteia de a cere ulterior explicatii asupra raportului de expertiza sau completarea expertizei incomplete ori efectuarea unei noi expertize, atunci cand apreciaza ca expertiza nu a fost efectuata cu competenta profesionala si in mod corect. De aceea sunt neconstitutionale prevederile art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala, care prevad ca dispozitiile alin. 3 si 4, referitoare la dreptul partilor de a cere numirea si a cate unui expert recomandat de ele, care sa participe la efectuarea expertizei, nu se aplica in cazul expertizei prevazute la art. 119 alin. 2, urmand ca partile sa aiba acest drept in toate cazurile, indiferent unde, potrivit legii, urmeaza sa se efectueze expertiza.
    Pentru considerentele aratate urmeaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate sa fie admisa.

    Fata de cele de mai sus, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si 25 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, cu majoritate de voturi,

    CURTEA,
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata de Ionel Vaduva in Dosarul nr. 168/1999 al Curtii de Apel Pitesti - Sectia penala si constata ca dispozitiile art. 120 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura penala sunt neconstitutionale.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 5 octombrie 1999.

           PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
                       LUCIAN MIHAI

                              Magistrat asistent,
                              Florentina Geangu



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    GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK.VIA: dromokpo@gmail.com This is my testimony of life that I will tell everyone. I have been married for 25 years Another woman had a spell to get me away from my lover, My husband left me and the children and we suffered for 2 years until I saw post about where this man Dr Omokpo has helped so many people recover their broken marriages and relationships   to get their ex lovers back. I decided to send him a message about my broken marriage and family  about how my husband left me and  for him to help me bring back my loving husband home, This great man told me what to do and I followed him as he instructed. After 48 hours, as he told me, I saw a car enter the compound. I was shocked when I saw my husband. As I share my testimony with you my husband came back to me and the kids and that's why I'm happy to put all of you to meet this man for solutions to your problem and bring your lover back to you and mend your broken marriage or your relationship restored back to happiness as you wished. Contact this great man via: dromokpo@gmail.com
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