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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 232 din 16 noiembrie 2000

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN:            MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 687 din 21 decembrie 2000


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    Lucian Mihai           - presedinte
    Costica Bulai          - judecator
    Constantin Doldur      - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor         - judecator
    Ioan Muraru            - judecator
    Nicolae Popa           - judecator
    Lucian Stangu          - judecator
    Florin Bucur Vasilescu - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica     - judecator
    Iuliana Nedelcu        - procuror
    Marioara Prodan        - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol se afla solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala, exceptie ridicata de Marian Girleanu in Dosarul nr. 8.778/1999 al Judecatoriei Focsani, judetul Vrancea.
    La apelul nominal se constata lipsa partilor (Marian Girleanu si Nicolae Abagiu), fata de care procedura de citare este legal indeplinita.
    Reprezentantul Ministerului Public pune concluzii de respingere, ca fiind inadmisibila, a exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala, in temeiul art. 23 alin. (3) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, intrucat prin Decizia nr. 145 din 14 iulie 2000 Curtea Constitutionala a admis exceptia de neconstitutionalitate referitoare la acelasi text de lege, constatand ca dispozitia "numai daca pedeapsa prevazuta de lege pentru fapta supusa judecatii este amenda sau inchisoarea de cel mult un an", prevazuta de acest text, este neconstitutionala.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, retine urmatoarele:
    Prin Incheierea din 31 mai 2000, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 8.778/1999, Judecatoria Focsani a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala, exceptie ridicata de Marian Girleanu, personal, printr-o cerere scrisa, si prin aparator, in sedinta de judecata, intr-un proces penal pornit impotriva sa pentru savarsirea infractiunii de lovire sau alte violente.
    In motivarea exceptiei autorul acesteia sustine ca dispozitiile art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala contravin prevederilor art. 24 din Constitutie referitoare la garantarea dreptului la aparare, intrucat limiteaza posibilitatea reprezentarii inculpatului in fata primei instante.
    Judecatoria Focsani, exprimandu-si opinia asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate ridicate, apreciaza ca aceasta este neintemeiata. Se considera ca "Posibilitatea ca inculpatul sa fie reprezentat, doar in conditiile in care pedeapsa ce urmeaza a fi aplicata este inchisoarea de cel mult un an sau amenda, constituie o garantie a dreptului la aparare, prevazut de dispozitiile art. 6 si art. 171 din Codul de procedura penala. Prezenta personala a acestuia la judecata creeaza conditiile pentru buna organizare a apararii, prin propunerea de probe, ridicarea unor exceptii, posibilitatea de a pune intrebari persoanelor audiate pe parcursul cercetarii judecatoresti [...], nefiind exclusa asistarea de catre avocatul desemnat din oficiu sau ales de catre inculpat". Instanta mai arata ca art. 24 din Constitutie prevede "dreptul partii implicate intr-un proces de a fi asistata de un aparator ales sau numit din oficiu si nu dreptul la reprezentare".
    In conformitate cu dispozitiile art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, incheierea de sesizare a fost comunicata presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului, pentru a-si exprima punctele de vedere asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate ridicate.
    Guvernul, in punctul sau de vedere, apreciaza, de asemenea, ca exceptia nu este intemeiata, avand in vedere ca "Obligatia inculpatului de a fi prezent la judecata constituie o garantie si nu o atingere a dreptului la aparare, drept consacrat prin art. 24 din Constitutie, intrucat conditiile de publicitate, oralitate si contradictorialitate, in care se desfasoara judecata, ofera inculpatului cadrul necesar realizarii apararii in procesul penal. In plus, prezenta inculpatului ofera instantei posibilitatea de a investiga direct personalitatea sa, aspect deosebit de important in procesul de individualizare a pedepsei". In sustinerea acestui punct de vedere se invoca si deciziile Curtii Constitutionale nr. 48/1997 si nr. 34/1999.
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au transmis punctele lor de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, sustinerile autorului exceptiei, punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale criticate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei, precum si dispozitiile Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Curtea Constitutionala constata ca a fost legal sesizata si este competenta, potrivit dispozitiilor art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si ale art. 1 alin. (1), ale art. 2, 3, 12 si 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata.
    Obiectul exceptiei il constituie dispozitiile art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala, care au urmatorul continut: "In cursul judecatii inculpatul poate fi reprezentat:
    a) la judecarea cauzei in prima instanta ori la rejudecarea ei dupa desfiintarea hotararii in apel sau dupa casare de catre instanta de recurs, numai daca pedeapsa prevazuta de lege pentru fapta supusa judecatii este amenda sau inchisoarea de cel mult un an."
    Autorul exceptiei considera ca aceste dispozitii care ii interzic dreptul de a fi reprezentat in instanta de catre aparatorul ales sunt contrare prevederilor art. 24 din Constitutie, conform carora: "(1) Dreptul la aparare este garantat.
    (2) In tot cursul procesului, partile au dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu."
    Examinand exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ce formeaza obiectul prezentei cauze, Curtea constata, pe de o parte, ca textul de lege criticat nu distinge intre cauzele care determina absenta inculpatului, iar pe de alta parte, ca prevederile art. 24 din Constitutie garanteaza neconditionat dreptul la aparare, precum si dreptul partilor de a fi asistate in tot cursul procesului de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu. In raport cu aceste prevederi constitutionale, inculpatul nu poate fi determinat sa se prezinte la judecarea cauzei sale prin instituirea unei obligatii pe care el nu o poate indeplini, indiferent din ce motive, iar interzicerea reprezentarii lui in instanta trebuie privita ca o incalcare a dreptului sau la aparare.
    Aceste argumente au determinat Curtea sa isi reconsidere jurisprudenta anterioara. Astfel, prin Decizia nr. 145 din 14 iulie 2000 Curtea a admis exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala si a decis ca dispozitia "numai daca pedeapsa prevazuta de lege pentru fapta supusa judecatii este amenda sau inchisoarea de cel mult un an" este neconstitutionala.
    Cu acel prilej Curtea a retinut ca, potrivit art. 20 alin. (1) din Constitutie, "Dispozitiile constitutionale privind drepturile si libertatile cetatenilor vor fi interpretate si aplicate in concordanta cu Declaratia Universala a Drepturilor Omului, cu pactele si cu celelalte tratate la care Romania este parte". Din aceasta perspectiva Curtea a stabilit ca realizarea dreptului la aparare al inculpatului in orice proces penal - in sensul prevederilor art. 6 pct. 3 lit. c) din Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale, asa cum acestea sunt interpretate si aplicate in jurisprudenta Curtii Europene a Drepturilor Omului - presupune asigurarea posibilitatii reprezentarii sale de catre un avocat in fata tuturor instantelor judecatoresti.
    De asemenea, in aceeasi decizie Curtea a retinut ca dispozitiile art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala sunt contrare si principiului egalitatii in drepturi a cetatenilor, prevazut la art. 16 alin. (1) din Constitutie, intrucat inculpatul este singura parte din proces care nu poate fi reprezentata in toate situatiile.
    Solutia adoptata si considerentele cuprinse in Decizia Curtii Constitutionale nr. 145 din 14 iulie 2000 sunt valabile si in prezenta cauza.
    Intrucat la data sesizarii Curtii Constitutionale mentionata decizie nu fusese inca pronuntata, in speta nu sunt aplicabile prevederile art. 23 alin. (3) si (6) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, referitoare la inadmisibilitatea exceptiilor de neconstitutionalitate avand ca obiect dispozitii legale constatate ca fiind neconstitutionale printr-o decizie anterioara a Curtii Constitutionale. In consecinta, exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ce face obiectul prezentei decizii urmeaza sa fie admisa.

    Pentru considerentele expuse, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) si al art. 145 alin. (2) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 1, 2, al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si al art. 25 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, cu majoritate de voturi,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata de Marian Girleanu in Dosarul nr. 8.778/1999 al Judecatoriei Focsani, judetul Vrancea, si constata ca dispozitia "numai daca pedeapsa prevazuta de lege pentru fapta supusa judecatii este amenda sau inchisoarea de cel mult un an", prevazuta la art. 174 alin. 1 lit. a) din Codul de procedura penala, este neconstitutionala.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 16 noiembrie 2000.

          PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
                       LUCIAN MIHAI

                              Magistrat asistent,
                              Marioara Prodan



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ANONIM a comentat Decizia 2 2007
    GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK.VIA: dromokpo@gmail.com This is my testimony of life that I will tell everyone. I have been married for 25 years Another woman had a spell to get me away from my lover, My husband left me and the children and we suffered for 2 years until I saw post about where this man Dr Omokpo has helped so many people recover their broken marriages and relationships   to get their ex lovers back. I decided to send him a message about my broken marriage and family  about how my husband left me and  for him to help me bring back my loving husband home, This great man told me what to do and I followed him as he instructed. After 48 hours, as he told me, I saw a car enter the compound. I was shocked when I saw my husband. As I share my testimony with you my husband came back to me and the kids and that's why I'm happy to put all of you to meet this man for solutions to your problem and bring your lover back to you and mend your broken marriage or your relationship restored back to happiness as you wished. Contact this great man via: dromokpo@gmail.com
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