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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 11 din  9 februarie 1999

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 136 din  1 aprilie 1999


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    Lucian Mihai           - presedinte
    Costica Bulai          - judecator
    Constantin Doldur      - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor         - judecator
    Ioan Muraru            - judecator
    Nicolae Popa           - judecator
    Lucian Stangu          - judecator
    Florin Bucur Vasilescu - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica     - judecator
    Paula C. Pantea        - procuror
    Gabriela Dragomirescu  - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol, solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila, ridicata de Kessler Walter in Dosarul nr. 485/1998 al Tribunalului Sibiu.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta publica din data de 15 decembrie 1998, in prezenta avocatei Eugenia Florescu pentru Kessler Walter, a reprezentantului Ministerului Public si in lipsa lui Damian Ilie, Bota Nicolae si a Societatii Comerciale "Reisenburo Kessler" - S.R.L., legal citati, fiind consemnate in incheierea de la acea data, cand Curtea, avand nevoie de timp pentru a delibera, a amanat pronuntarea pentru 21 ianuarie 1999 si apoi pentru 26 ianuarie 1999, pentru 4 februarie 1999 si pentru 9 februarie 1999.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Prin Incheierea din 10 martie 1998, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 485/1998, Tribunalul Sibiu a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila, ridicata de Kessler Walter. In motivarea exceptiei se arata ca textul criticat incalca dispozitiile constitutionale ale art. 21 referitoare la accesul la justitie si ale art. 128 privind folosirea cailor de atac, prin aceea ca solutionarea conflictului de competenta prevazut de acest articol are loc fara citarea partilor, iar termenul pentru exercitarea caii de atac impotriva regulatorului de competenta curge de la pronuntarea hotararii. Se sustine ca necitarea partilor in proces, judecarea procesului in camera de consiliu si nepronuntarea hotararii in sedinta publica echivaleaza cu o veritabila interdictie a accesului la actul de justitie, iar exercitarea recursului in termen de 5 zile de la pronuntare devine iluzorie. Prin notele scrise depuse la dosar se sustine, de asemenea, ca textul criticat incalca si prevederile constitutionale ale art. 24 privind dreptul la aparare, intrucat necitarea partilor in proces inlatura exercitarea efectiva a dreptului la aparare al partilor, precum si prevederile art. 126 referitoare la publicitatea dezbaterilor, deoarece judecata in camera de consiliu, fara citarea partilor si fara ca hotararea sa fie pronuntata in sedinta publica, ar contraveni flagrant acestui principiu. Se mai arata ca dispozitia instituita de art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila este in contradictie si cu art. 6 din Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale, care, printre altele, prevede ca hotararea trebuie pronuntata in mod public, accesul in sala de sedinta putand fi interzis presei si publicului numai daca publicitatea ar fi de natura sa aduca atingere intereselor justitiei si daca tribunalul apreciaza aceasta masura ca fiind strict necesara.
    Exprimandu-si opinia, instanta de judecata considera exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata ca fiind neintemeiata.
    Potrivit art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, au fost solicitate puncte de vedere presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    In punctul de vedere al Guvernului se apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata, deoarece hotararea pronuntata de instanta de judecata in temeiul art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila nu rezolva fondul litigiului. Instanta se pronunta doar asupra competentei de judecare a cauzei, iar partile dispun de posibilitatea de a ataca prin recurs hotararea respectiva.
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, sustinerile partilor si concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale atacate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei si ale Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Potrivit art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si art. 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, Curtea Constitutionala a fost legal sesizata si este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata.
    Exceptia de neconstitutionalitate priveste art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila care prevede: "Instanta competenta sa judece conflictul va hotari in camera de consiliu, fara citarea partilor, cu drept de recurs in termen de 5 zile de la pronuntare."
    Autorul exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate sustine ca aceasta dispozitie legala incalca dispozitiile constitutionale ale art. 21 alin. (2) privind accesul la justitie, ale art. 24 referitor la dreptul la aparare, ale art. 126 care prevede caracterul public al dezbaterilor si ale art. 128 care reglementeaza folosirea cailor de atac, precum si prevederile art. 6 din Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale, care stabilesc dreptul la un proces echitabil.
    Examinand cauza, Curtea Constitutionala constata ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este intemeiata si ca art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila este neconstitutional in partea care prevede ca termenul pentru exercitarea dreptului de recurs curge de la pronuntarea hotararii care contine regulatorul de competenta. Conform articolului criticat, instanta competenta sa judece conflictul de competenta hotaraste in camera de consiliu, fara citarea partilor. Necitarea partilor pentru judecarea conflictului de competenta le priveaza de posibilitatea de a cunoaste solutia si data pronuntarii ei, astfel incat reglementarea folosirii dreptului de recurs intr-un termen ce curge de la pronuntarea hotararii determina, cel mai adesea, imposibilitatea exercitarii dreptului. Se inlatura in felul acesta posibilitatea exercitarii efective a dreptului constitutional la aparare reglementat de art. 24, si anume prin folosirea caii de atac, conform dreptului prevazut la art. 128 din Constitutie.
    In conditiile existentei celor doua exceptii de la dreptul comun prevazute la art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila - si anume, necitarea partilor si curgerea termenului de recurs de la pronuntarea hotararii -, exercitarea reala a dreptului de recurs si, prin aceasta, a dreptului la aparare se poate realiza numai prin aplicarea regulii generale stabilite de art. 301 din acelasi cod, potrivit careia termenul de recurs curge de la data comunicarii hotararii care este atacata.

    Pentru considerentele aratate, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si al art. 25 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata de Kessler Walter in Dosarul nr. 485/1998 al Tribunalului Sibiu si constata ca dispozitia art. 22 alin. 5 din Codul de procedura civila, conform careia termenul pentru exercitarea dreptului de recurs curge de la pronuntarea hotararii care contine regulatorul de competenta, este neconstitutionala.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 9 februarie 1999.

          PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
                    LUCIAN MIHAI

                           Magistrat asistent,
                           Gabriela Dragomirescu



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