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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 255 din 20 septembrie 2001

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 2 si ale art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 837 din 27 decembrie 2001


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    Nicolae Popa          - presedinte
    Costica Bulai         - judecator
    Nicolae Cochinescu    - judecator
    Constantin Doldur     - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor        - judecator
    Petre Ninosu          - judecator
    Lucian Stangu         - judecator
    Serban Viorel Stanoiu - judecator
    Ioan Vida             - judecator
    Iuliana Nedelcu       - procuror
    Cristina Radu         - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol se afla solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 2 si ale art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, exceptie ridicata de Alexandru Pantea in Dosarul nr. 753/2001 al Tribunalului Timis - Sectia civila.
    La apelul nominal se constata lipsa partilor, fata de care procedura de citare este legal indeplinita.
    Reprezentantul Ministerului Public pune concluzii de respingere a exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate ca fiind neintemeiata, invocand in acest sens practica in materie a Curtii Constitutionale (Decizia nr. 45 din 10 martie 1998 referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 182 din 18 mai 1998, precum si Decizia nr. 172 din 23 mai 2001 referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 505 alin. 2 teza a doua din Codul de procedura penala, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 470 din 16 august 2001).

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, retine urmatoarele:
    Prin Incheierea din 27 aprilie 2001, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 753/2001, Tribunalul Timis - Sectia civila a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 2 si ale art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, exceptie ridicata de Alexandru Pantea.
    In motivarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate autorul acesteia sustine in sedinta publica de judecata ca art. 504 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala vine in contradictie cu prevederile art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie si cu cele ale art. 5 pct. 5 din Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale, deoarece limiteaza dreptul la repararea prejudiciului cauzat printr-o arestare preventiva, prin conditia ca persoana sa fi fost scoasa de sub urmarire penala sau achitata, pe motiv ca nu a savarsit fapta imputata ori ca acea fapta nu exista. De asemenea, considera ca fiind neconstitutionale si dispozitiile art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, deoarece limiteaza termenul de introducere a actiunii la un an.
    Tribunalul Timis - Sectia civila, exprimandu-si opinia, arata ca asupra neconstitutionalitatii dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala Curtea Constitutionala s-a pronuntat prin Decizia nr. 45 din 10 martie 1998, exceptia fiind admisa. Avand in vedere modul in care a fost solutionata exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a alin. 1 al art. 504 din Codul de procedura penala, instanta de judecata apreciaza ca se impune a se analiza si constitutionalitatea alin. 2 al acestui text, ele fiind in stransa legatura. Se mai arata ca, intrucat in cauza a fost ridicata exceptia tardivitatii actiunii, "in situatia in care se va da o astfel de interpretare si dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 2 si 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala [...], se impune prorogarea discutarii exceptiei de tardivitate pana cand Curtea Constitutionala se va pronunta in mod definitiv asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate".
    Potrivit art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, incheierea de sesizare a fost comunicata presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului, pentru a-si exprima punctele de vedere asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate ridicate.
    Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor, in punctul sau de vedere, considera ca dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 2 si ale art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala sunt constitutionale atat in temeiul art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie, cat si in temeiul dispozitiilor art. 3 din Protocolul nr. 7 la Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale.
    Guvernul, in punctul sau de vedere, arata ca, potrivit Deciziei Curtii Constitutionale nr. 45/1998, dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala sunt constitutionale numai in masura in care nu limiteaza la ipotezele prevazute in text cazurile in care statul raspunde patrimonial pentru prejudiciile cauzate prin erori judiciare savarsite in procesele penale, potrivit art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie. Fata de aceasta decizie a Curtii Constitutionale Guvernul apreciaza ca si dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 2 sunt constitutionale numai in masura aratata in decizia mentionata. In ceea ce priveste exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, Guvernul opineaza ca aceste dispozitii nu contravin prevederilor Constitutiei, intrucat orice drept reclamat de o persoana interesata, inclusiv dreptul instituit prin acest text, poate fi dobandit numai daca persoana in cauza respecta termenele prevazute de lege.
    Presedintele Senatului nu a comunicat punctul sau de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctul de vedere al presedintelui Camerei Deputatilor si punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale criticate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei, precum si dispozitiile Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Curtea Constitutionala constata ca este competenta, potrivit dispozitiilor art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, ale art. 1 alin. (1), ale art. 2, 3, 12 si 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate cu care a fost sesizata.
    Obiectul exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate il constituie dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 2 si ale art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala. Aceste dispozitii au urmatorul continut:
    Art. 504 alin. 2
    "Are dreptul la repararea pagubei si persoana impotriva careia s-a luat o masura preventiva, iar ulterior, pentru motivele aratate in alineatul precedent, a fost scoasa de sub urmarire sau a fost achitata.";
    Art. 505 alin. 2
    "Actiunea poate fi pornita in termen de un an de la ramanerea definitiva a hotararii de achitare sau de la data ordonantei de scoatere de sub urmarire."
    Autorul exceptiei arata ca aceste dispozitii sunt contrare prevederilor art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie, potrivit carora "Statul raspunde patrimonial, potrivit legii, pentru prejudiciile cauzate prin erorile judiciare savarsite in procesele penale".
    De asemenea, se considera ca aceleasi dispozitii legale incalca si prevederile art. 5 pct. 5 din Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale, potrivit carora "Orice persoana care este victima unei arestari sau unei detineri in conditii contrare dispozitiilor acestui articol are dreptul la reparatii".
    Examinand exceptia de neconstitutionalitate, Curtea constata ca prin dispozitiile art. 504 - 507 din Codul de procedura penala au fost reglementate, in conformitate cu prevederile art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie si cu cele ale art. 5 pct. 5 din Conventia pentru apararea drepturilor omului si a libertatilor fundamentale, modul de reparare a pagubelor produse prin erori judiciare savarsite in procesele penale. Insa in situatia in care o persoana pretinde ca este victima unui abuz comis de un procuror modalitatea de reparare o reprezinta plangerea adresata Ministerului Public. Conditiile repararii pagubei sunt cele prevazute de lege, urmand ca in cazul constatarii unui abuz statul sa exercite actiunea in regres prevazuta in art. 507 din Codul de procedura penala. Sub acest aspect, dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala nu pot fi considerate ca fiind neconstitutionale.
    De altfel, asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala Curtea Constitutionala s-a mai pronuntat prin Decizia nr. 45 din 10 martie 1998, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 182 din 18 mai 1998. In acea cauza Curtea a admis exceptia de neconstitutionalitate si a constatat ca dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala sunt constitutionale numai in masura in care nu limiteaza la ipotezele prevazute in text cazurile in care statul raspunde patrimonial pentru prejudiciile cauzate prin erori judiciare savarsite in procesele penale.
    Prin urmare, Curtea Constitutionala a statuat ca, in conformitate cu prevederile art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie (si, in mod corespunzator, conform prevederilor art. 5 pct. 5 din conventie), au dreptul la repararea de catre stat a pagubei nu numai persoana condamnata definitiv cu privire la care s-a stabilit prin hotarare definitiva ca nu a savarsit fapta imputata ori ca acea fapta nu exista, ci si persoana care, in urma rejudecarii cauzei, a fost achitata pentru oricare dintre motivele prevazute in Codul de procedura penala.
    Dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala au fost considerate ca fiind partial neconstitutionale numai sub raportul sferei lor de aplicare (temeiurile achitarii), nu si sub acela al conditiilor repararii pagubelor pricinuite prin erori judiciare in procesele penale.
    Examinand exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 504 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, Curtea constata ca acestea nu au mai fost supuse controlului de constitutionalitate, dar din aceleasi ratiuni care au motivat Decizia nr. 45 din 10 martie 1998 exceptia urmeaza sa fie admisa in parte, cu precizarea ca textul este neconstitutional in masura in care este inteles - contrar prevederilor art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie - ca nu are dreptul la repararea pagubei persoana impotriva careia s-a luat o masura preventiva, iar ulterior a fost scoasa de sub urmarire sau a fost achitata in temeiul oricaruia dintre cazurile de achitare prevazute de Codul de procedura penala.
    Asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala Curtea Constitutionala s-a mai pronuntat, statuand ca aceste dispozitii sunt constitutionale. Astfel, prin Decizia nr. 107 din 1 iulie 1999, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 354 din 27 iulie 1999, Curtea a statuat ca nici normele constitutionale, nici cele din tratatele internationale la care Romania este parte nu prevad imprescriptibilitatea dreptului persoanelor prejudiciate prin masuri ilegale de detinere de a porni actiune in repararea pagubei si nici un termen limita in care acest drept poate fi exercitat. Art. 48 alin. (3) din Constitutie, prin expresia "potrivit legii", lasa la optiunea legiuitorului stabilirea conditiilor procedurale in care dreptul la reparatii poate fi exercitat. Termenul de un an, prevazut in art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, este un termen de prescriptie a dreptului la actiune rezonabil, care asigura conditiile optime celui prejudiciat pentru a exercita actiune in justitie in scopul obtinerii reparatiilor legale.
    In acelasi sens s-a pronuntat Curtea si prin Decizia nr. 172 din 23 mai 2001, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 470 din 16 august 2001.

    Pentru considerentele expuse, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) si al art. 145 alin. (2) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 1 - 3, al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si art. 25 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    1. Admite, in parte, exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata de Alexandru Pantea in Dosarul nr. 753/C/2001 al Tribunalului Timis - Sectia civila si constata ca dispozitiile art. 504 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala sunt constitutionale numai in masura in care nu limiteaza la ipotezele prevazute in alin. 1 al aceluiasi articol dreptul la repararea pagubei al persoanei impotriva careia s-a luat o masura preventiva, iar ulterior a fost scoasa de sub urmarire sau a fost achitata.
    2. Respinge exceptia de neconstitutionalitate cu privire la celelalte dispozitii ale art. 504 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, precum si exceptia de neconstitutionalitate privind art. 505 alin. 2 din Codul de procedura penala, ridicate de acelasi autor in acelasi dosar.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 20 septembrie 2001.

         PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
              prof. univ. dr. NICOLAE POPA

                              Magistrat-asistent,
                              Cristina Radu

    Intrucat magistratul-asistent Cristina Radu se afla in imposibilitate de a semna deoarece a fost numita in functia de procuror, in locul sau semneaza, in temeiul art. 261 din Codul de procedura civila,

                              magistrat asistent sef,
                              Claudia Miu



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