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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 22 din 21 aprilie 1993

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 129 din 17 iunie 1993


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    Ion Filipescu     - presedinte
    Miklos Fazakas    - judecator
    Ioan Muraru       - judecator
    Raul Petrescu     - procuror
    Florentina Geangu - magistrat-asistent.

    Pe rol solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. V din Legea nr. 49/1992 pentru modificarea si completarea unor reglementari din legislatia de asigurari sociale invocata de Popescu Corneliu Liviu in Dosarul nr. 429/1992 al Tribunalului municipiului Bucuresti - Sectia contencios - administrativ.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta din 14 aprilie 1993 si au fost consemnate in incheierea de la acea data, pronuntarea amanandu-se pentru azi, 21 aprilie 1993.

    CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului retine urmatoarele:
    Prin cererea inregistrata la Tribunalul municipiului Bucuresti - Sectia contencios-administrativ, formand obiectul Dosarului nr. 429/1992, reclamantul Popescu Corneliu Liviu a chemat in judecata Ministerul Muncii si Protectiei Sociale si Ministerul Finantelor solicitand anularea art. 1 lit. a) alin. 1 si 2 din Precizarile nr. 947/181679 - emise in comun de cele doua ministere - privind aplicarea prevederilor Legii nr. 49/1992 pentru modificarea si completarea unor reglementari din legislatia de asigurari sociale. Solicitarea reclamantului a fost determinata de faptul ca normele au dus la o majorare a contributiei de asigurari sociale pe care o plateste pentru activitatea desfasurata.
    La termenul de judecata de la 12 noiembrie 1992 reclamantul a invocat neconstitutionalitatea art. V din Legea nr. 49/1992 pentru modificarea si completarea unor reglementari din legislatia de asigurari sociale, articol pe baza caruia s-au emis precizarile mentionate si care au determinat declansarea litigiului.
    Reclamantul considera ca art. V din Legea nr. 49/1992 este neconstitutional deoarece incalca principiul neretroactivitatii legii consacrat in art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie si dispozitiile art. 78 al acesteia privind intrarea in vigoare a legii si, in consecinta, solicita instantei sesizarea Curtii Constitutionale pentru solutionarea exceptiei invocate.
    In indeplinirea obligatiei prevazute de art. 23  alin. (4) si (5) din Legea nr 47/1992, instanta "opineaza favorabil" in ce priveste cererea reclamantului, iar prin Incheierea din 19 noiembrie 1992 sesizeaza Curtea Constitutionala cu privire la exceptia ridicata si dispune suspendarea judecarii cauzei.
    In vederea solutionarii exceptiei au fost solicitate, in baza art 24 alin. (3) din Legea nr. 47/1992, puncte de vedere Camerei Deputatilor, Senatului si Guvernului.
    In punctul de vedere exprimat de catre Guvern se apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate invocata este fara interes legitim, determinat de faptul ca deciziile Curtii Constitutionale au efect numai pentru viitor si pe cale de consecinta reclamantul ar fi in imposibilitate de a solicita restituirea contributiei de asigurari sociale platita.
    Senatul si Camera Deputatilor nu au comunicat punctul lor de vedere.

    CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA
examinand incheierea de sesizare si actele dosarului in care s-a invocat exceptia de neconstitutionalitate, punctele de vedere exprimate de autoritatile solicitate, raportul prezentat de judecatorul raportor, precum si concluziile procurorului prezentate in sedinta publica din 14 aprilie 1993 si vazand dispozitiile art. 15 alin (2), art. 78 si art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, art. 12, art. 24 si art. 26 din Legea nr. 47/1992 si dispozitiile Legii nr. 49/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    In baza art. 3 alin. (2) din Legea nr. 47/1992, Curtea constata mai intai ca este competenta a solutiona cauza in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si al prevederilor art. 23 si urmatoarele din Legea nr. 47/1992, iar sesizarea s-a facut cu respectarea cerintelor legale.
    Prin art. V din Legea nr. 49/1992 se stabileste ca "Dispozitiile prezentei legi se aplica de la data de 1 aprilie 1992". Aceasta lege a fost adoptata de catre Camera Deputatilor si de catre Senat, in sedinte separate, la 21 mai 1992, a fost promulgata de Presedintele Romaniei la data de 22 mai 1992 si publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 107 din 26 mai 1992.
    Potrivit art. 78 din Constitutie, legea intra in vigoare la data publicarii ei in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei sau la data prevazuta in textul ei.
    Potrivit Constitutiei, art. 15 alin. (2), legea dispune numai pentru viitor, cu exceptia legii penale mai favorabile.
    Din coroborarea celor doua texte constitutionale rezulta ca legea, cu exceptia legii penale mai favorabile, intra in vigoare la data publicarii ei in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei sau la data prevazuta expres in textul acesteia. Data prevazuta in textul legii nu poate fi decat posterioara datei publicarii in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei si nicidecum anterioara acesteia, ca in speta, deoarece potrivit principiului neretroactivitatii legii, care a dobandit o valoare constitutionala prin art. 13 alin (2), legiuitorul este obligat sa nu emita legi cu caracter retroactiv.
    Singura exceptie de la principiul neretroactivitatii este prevazuta in mod expres de legea fundamentala si ea priveste numai legile penale mai favorabile.
    Legea nr. 49/1992 nu este lege penala si, ca atare, intra sub incidenta prevederilor art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie.
    In consecinta, art. V din Legea nr. 49/1992 care dispune ca aceasta se aplica de la data de 1 aprilie 1992 este neconstitutional, deoarece incalca principiul neretroactivitatii legii.
    In aceasta situatie urmeaza a se aplica regula generala a intrarii in vigoare a unei legi, si anume, data publicarii in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, respectiv 26 mai 1992.
    Pentru motivele aratate, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, art. 13 alin. 1 pct. A. lit. c), art. 24 alin. (4), art. 25 alin. (1) si art. 26 din Legea nr. 47/1992,

    CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate formulata de Popescu Corneliu Liviu in fata Tribunalului municipiului Bucuresti - Sectia contencios-administrativ, cu care Curtea Constitutionala a fost sesizata prin Incheierea din 19 noiembrie 1992 a acestui tribunal.
    Constata ca art. V din Legea nr. 49/1992 este neconstitutional.
    Cu recurs in termen de 10 zile de la comunicare.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din 21 aprilie 1993.

           PRESEDINTE,
           Prof. dr. doc. Ion Filipescu

                          Magistrat asistent,
                          Florentina Geangu



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