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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 214*) din 16 iunie 1997

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. II alin. 1 din Legea nr. 140/1996 pentru modificarea si completarea Codului penal

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 234 din  8 septembrie 1997


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    *) Definitiva prin nerecurare.

    Nicolae Popa         - presedinte
    Costica Bulai        - judecator
    Mihai Constantinescu - judecator
    Ioan Griga           - procuror
    Claudia Miu          - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol, pronuntarea asupra exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. II din Legea nr. 140/1996 pentru modificarea si completarea Codului penal, ridicata de reprezentantul Parchetului de pe langa Tribunalul Ialomita, in Dosarul nr. 199/1997 al aceleiasi instante.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta publica din 12 iunie 1997, in prezenta reprezentantului Ministerului Public, si au fost consemnate in incheierea de la acea data, cand Curtea Constitutionala, avand nevoie de timp pentru deliberare, a amanat pronuntarea la data de 16 iunie 1997.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, retine urmatoarele:
    Prin Incheierea din 9 aprilie 1997, Tribunalul Ialomita a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. II din Legea nr. 140/1996 pentru modificarea si completarea Codului penal, ridicata de reprezentantul Parchetului de pe langa Tribunalul Ialomita, cu motivarea ca prevederile mentionate sunt in vadita contradictie cu dispozitia din art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie, potrivit careia "Legea dispune numai pentru viitor", deci nu retroactiveaza.
    Din cuprinsul incheierii, rezulta ca, prin Sentinta penala nr. 412 din 7 martie 1997 a Judecatoriei Slobozia, a fost admisa propunerea de liberare conditionata, formulata de Comisia pentru propuneri pentru liberare conditionata din cadrul Penitenciarului din Slobozia, dispunandu-se punerea in libertate a condamnatului Paun Marian, detinut in acest penitenciar pentru o pedeapsa de 2 ani si 2 luni inchisoare, aplicata de Judecatoria Fetesti pentru un concurs de infractiuni. S-a retinut ca cel condamnat a inceput executarea la 5 februarie 1996 si a executat fractiunea de pedeapsa prevazuta in art. 59 din Codul penal anterior modificarii aduse prin Legea nr. 140/1996, retinand ca, in raport cu dispozitiile art. 13 din Codul penal, propunerea comisiei este legala, condamnatul fiind indreptatit sa i se aplice legea mai favorabila in raport cu data savarsirii faptei.
    Impotriva acestei sentinte a declarat apel Parchetul de pe langa Judecatoria Slobozia, care o critica pentru nelegalitate, in sensul ca modificarile aduse Codului penal prin Legea nr. 140/1996 prevad in art. II ca noile prevederi ale art. 59 din Codul penal nu se aplica celor care au fost condamnati definitiv pana la data de 14 noiembrie 1996, deci, pe cale de consecinta, trebuia sa se aplice fractiunea de 2/3 din pedeapsa si nu de 1/2.
    In sedinta publica, reprezentantul parchetului nu a mai sustinut acest motiv de apel, ridicand exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. II din Legea nr. 140/1996, pe considerentul ca acesta este vadit in contradictie cu art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutia Romaniei, care prevede ca "Legea dispune numai pentru viitor, cu exceptia legii penale mai favorabile".
    Avocatul intimatului-condamnat s-a declarat de acord cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata.
    Exprimandu-si opinia asupra exceptiei, Tribunalul Ialomita o considera intemeiata, precizand ca art. II din Legea nr. 140/1996 ar fi trebuit sa se refere la acele fapte penale care au fost comise dupa data intrarii in vigoare a acesteia si nu la fapte pentru care s-a pronuntat o sentinta definitiva de condamnare.
    Din cuprinsul incheierii rezulta insa ca exceptia se refera numai la alineatul 1 al art. II din Legea nr. 140/1996, care contine dispozitii tranzitorii cu privire la liberarea conditionata.
    In vederea solutionarii exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate, conform dispozitiilor art. 24 alin. (3) din Legea nr. 47/1992, incheierea de sesizare a Curtii Constitutionale a fost trimisa fiecarei Camere a Parlamentului si Guvernului, pentru a comunica punctele lor de vedere.
    In punctul de vedere al Guvernului se apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este intemeiata, dispozitiile art. II alin. 1 din legea mentionata fiind neconstitutionale, intrucat acestea contravin prevederilor art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie, potrivit carora "Legea dispune numai pentru viitor, cu exceptia legii penale mai favorabile". In acest sens se arata ca din interpretarea art. II alin. 1 din legea mentionata rezulta ca dispozitiile sale, care constituie legea penala noua si care prevad conditii mai restrictive in cazul liberarii conditionate, se aplica si persoanelor care au savarsit infractiuni anterior intrarii in vigoare a Legii nr. 140/1996, desi acest fapt este interzis de Constitutie.
    Intrucat prin "art. II alin. 1 se precizeaza ca de la aplicarea legii penale noi sunt exclusi numai cei condamnati definitiv, pe cale de consecinta, se impune concluzia ca noile prevederi se aplica persoanelor aflate in curs de urmarire penala sau de judecata, cu toate ca acestea au comis infractiuni tot inainte ca Legea nr. 140/1996 sa fie publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei". Aceasta impartire artificiala intre cele doua categorii de persoane, care au savarsit infractiuni inaintea intrarii in vigoare a noii legi penale, a creat impactul intre dispozitiile art. II alin. 1 si prevederile art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie.
    Se precizeaza, de asemenea, ca neconstitutionalitatea dispozitiilor art. II alin. 1 din Legea nr. 140/1996 consta si in eroarea pe care a comis-o legiuitorul atunci cand a prevazut expres ca legea noua, care contine dispozitii mai severe, se aplica si celor condamnati definitiv, care s-au sustras de la executarea pedepsei. O dispozitie legala speciala nu poate infrange principiul de drept, instituit ca atare si prin prevederile Constitutiei, si anume cel al aplicarii legii penale mai favorabile.
    Camera Deputatilor si Senatul nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere incheierea de sesizare, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, dispozitiile art. II alin. 1 din Legea nr. 140/1996 pentru modificarea si completarea Codului penal, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei si ale Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    In temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, al art. 23 si al art. 26 alin. (3) din Legea nr. 47/1992, Curtea este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate.
    Textul art. II alin. 1 din Legea nr. 140/1996 pentru modificarea si completarea Codului penal, a carui neconstitutionalitate a fost ridicata in fata Tribunalului Ialomita, ca instanta de apel, este urmatorul:
    "Dispozitiile prezentei legi privitoare la liberarea conditionata nu se aplica celor condamnati definitiv inainte de intrarea in vigoare a legii, cu exceptia celor care s-au sustras de la executare".
    Din examinarea dispozitiilor privitoare la liberarea conditionata, introduse prin Legea nr. 140/1996, rezulta ca au fost inasprite conditiile de acordare a liberarii conditionate condamnatilor pentru infractiuni intentionate, deoarece s-au marit fractiunile de pedeapsa ce trebuie sa fie executate pentru acordarea liberarii conditionate.
    Pe de alta parte, potrivit dispozitiilor alin. 1 al art. II din lege, aceste prevederi nu se aplica celor condamnati definitiv inainte de intrarea in vigoare a legii, cu exceptia celor care s-au sustras de la executare. Per a contrario, dispozitiile legii noi, privitoare la liberarea conditionata, urmeaza sa se aplice celor condamnati definitiv dupa intrarea ei in vigoare, dar pentru infractiuni savarsite anterior acestei date, precum si celor condamnati anterior, care s-au sustras de la executare.
    Aceste prevederi referitoare la incidenta legii penale in raport cu faptele savarsite anterior intrarii in vigoare sunt insa in vadita contradictie cu dispozitiile art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie, precum si cu prevederile art. 13 din Codul penal, care consacra principiul legii mai favorabile in cazul situatiilor tranzitorii in succesiunea legilor penale. Incidenta dispozitiilor Legii nr. 140/1996 pentru modificarea si completarea Codului penal, in raport cu faptele si cu persoanele, este guvernata de prevederile art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie, care, consfintind regula ca legea dispune numai pentru viitor, admit ca unica exceptie legea penala mai favorabila. Aceste reguli referitoare la succesiunea legilor penale privesc atat legea in ansamblul sau, cat si fiecare dintre normele si institutiile sale in parte, cum este cazul liberarii conditionate.
    Situatia tranzitorie in succesiunea legilor penale se iveste, daca de la data savarsirii infractiunii, cand ia nastere raportul juridic penal de conflict, si pana la incetarea sau stingerea acestui raport prin executarea sau considerarea ca executata a pedepsei aplicate, iar uneori pana la inlaturarea consecintelor condamnarii prin reabilitare, au intervenit una sau mai multe legi penale. Legea aplicabila este totdeauna legea cea mai favorabila. In cazul institutiei liberarii conditionate, situatia tranzitorie se creeaza, de asemenea, la data savarsirii infractiunii si dureaza pana la executarea sau considerarea ca executata a pedepsei detentiunii pe viata sau a pedepsei inchisorii. Interventia, in acest interval, a unei legi penale care modifica institutia liberarii conditionate, cum este cazul Legii nr. 140/1996, face ca determinarea legii aplicabile sa se efectueze potrivit regulilor inscrise in art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutie si in art. 13 alin. 1 din Codul penal, independent de data la care sentinta de condamnare a ramas definitiva.
    Asa fiind, dispozitia din alin. 1 al art. II al Legii nr. 140/1996, care se refera la incidenta legii in raport cu fapte savarsite inainte de intrarea ei in vigoare, contravine dispozitiei art. 15 alin. (2) din Constitutia Romaniei.
    Pentru considerentele expuse mai sus, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 24 si al art. 25 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate invocata de Parchetul de pe langa Tribunalul Ialomita in Dosarul penal nr. 199/1997 al Tribunalului Ialomita si constata ca dispozitiile art. II alin. 1 din Legea nr. 140/1996 pentru modificarea si completarea Codului penal sunt neconstitutionale.
    Cu recurs in termen de 10 zile de la comunicare.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din 16 iunie 1997.

                  PRESEDINTE,
                  prof. univ. dr. Nicolae Popa

                            Magistrat asistent,
                            Claudia Miu



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ANONIM a comentat Decizia 2 2007
    GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK.VIA: dromokpo@gmail.com This is my testimony of life that I will tell everyone. I have been married for 25 years Another woman had a spell to get me away from my lover, My husband left me and the children and we suffered for 2 years until I saw post about where this man Dr Omokpo has helped so many people recover their broken marriages and relationships   to get their ex lovers back. I decided to send him a message about my broken marriage and family  about how my husband left me and  for him to help me bring back my loving husband home, This great man told me what to do and I followed him as he instructed. After 48 hours, as he told me, I saw a car enter the compound. I was shocked when I saw my husband. As I share my testimony with you my husband came back to me and the kids and that's why I'm happy to put all of you to meet this man for solutions to your problem and bring your lover back to you and mend your broken marriage or your relationship restored back to happiness as you wished. Contact this great man via: dromokpo@gmail.com
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