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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 150 din  7 octombrie 1999

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 605 din 10 decembrie 1999


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    Ioan Muraru            - presedinte
    Costica Bulai          - judecator
    Constantin Doldur      - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor         - judecator
    Nicolae Popa           - judecator
    Lucian Stangu          - judecator
    Florin Bucur Vasilescu - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica     - judecator
    Iuliana Nedelcu        - procuror
    Claudia Miu            - magistrat-asistent sef

    Pe rol se afla solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal, exceptie ridicata de Nicolae Radu in Dosarul nr. 384/1999 al Curtii de Apel Bucuresti - Sectia a II-a penala.
    La apelul nominal este prezent autorul exceptiei, Nicolae Radu, lipsind celelalte parti, fata de care procedura de citare este legal indeplinita.
    Autorul exceptiei declara ca lasa la aprecierea Curtii solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate.
    Reprezentantul Ministerului Public pune concluzii de admitere a exceptiei, invocand considerentele Deciziei nr. 177 din 15 decembrie 1998 publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 77 din 24 februarie 1999 prin care Curtea Constitutionala, pronuntandu-se asupra dispozitiilor art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, a constatat ca dispozitia "cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului" este neconstitutionala. Exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ce face obiectul cauzei vizeaza aceeasi dispozitie legala, cuprinsa in alin. 6 al art. 217 din Codul penal, astfel incat, pentru identitate de ratiune, se impune admiterea exceptiei aflate in dezbatere.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Curtea de Apel Bucuresti - Sectia a II-a penala, prin Incheierea din 3 iunie 1999, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 384/1999, a sesizat Curtea Constitutionala cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal, exceptie ridicata de Nicolae Radu.
    In motivarea exceptiei se sustine ca prevederile art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal "creeaza o diferentiere in regimul de protectie a proprietatii, in sensul acordarii unui plus de garantie proprietatii statului prin aplicarea principiului oficialitatii in exercitarea actiunii penale, in timp ce in cazul proprietatii private punerea in miscare a actiunii penale si aplicarea sanctiunii sunt conditionate de plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate". Se sustine in continuare ca dispozitia "cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului", cuprinsa in textul de lege criticat, este contrara prevederilor constitutionale ale art. 41 alin. (2), precum si celor ale art. 135 alin. (1). Se mai arata ca art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal stabileste o inegalitate a cetatenilor in fata legii, prin aceea ca rapeste inculpatului care savarseste o infractiune de distrugere a unor bunuri ale statului posibilitatea de a beneficia de impacarea partilor sau de retragerea plangerii, posibilitate de care beneficiaza numai autorii infractiunilor de distrugere a unor bunuri proprietate privata. Intrucat aceasta prevedere legala instituie o situatie diferita pentru autorii unor asemenea infractiuni, ea contravine dispozitiilor art. 16 alin. (1) din Constitutie referitoare la egalitatea in drepturi.
    Exprimandu-si opinia, in temeiul prevederilor art. 23 alin. (4) din Legea nr. 47/1992 privind organizarea si functionarea Curtii Constitutionale, republicata, instanta de judecata considera exceptia intemeiata, deoarece "nu se poate ca statul, in ceea ce priveste bunurile care formeaza obiectul proprietatii private, sa beneficieze de o ocrotire diferita de aceea a persoanelor fizice sau juridice de drept privat, respectiv de exercitarea actiunii penale din oficiu, ce presupune parcurgerea fazei urmaririi penale si sesizarea instantei prin rechizitoriu, in timp ce persoanele fizice sau cele juridice de drept privat exercita plangerea prealabila potrivit procedurii stipulate de aceasta, reglementarile prevazute de Codul de procedura penala fiind distincte. De asemenea, se evidentiaza o inegalitate si din punct de vedere al beneficiului impacarii partilor, ce opereaza numai pentru subiectii care au distrus bunuri ce nu apartin proprietatii private a statului".
    Potrivit prevederilor art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, au fost solicitate punctele de vedere ale presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    In punctul sau de vedere Guvernul apreciaza ca dispozitiile art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal contravin intr-adevar prevederilor art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie, nu insa si prevederilor art. 16 alin. (1) si ale art. 135 alin. (1) din legea fundamentala. De aceea considera ca exceptia este intemeiata numai in raport cu art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie, asa cum este si jurisprudenta Curtii Constitutionale, exprimata in deciziile nr. 177/1998 si nr. 5/1999, prin care s-a admis exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal si, respectiv, a dispozitiilor art. 214 alin. 3 din acelasi cod.
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale criticate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei, precum si Legea nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Potrivit art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si art. 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, Curtea Constitutionala este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia de neconstitutionalitate, fiind legal sesizata.
    Critica de neconstitutionalitate priveste dispozitiile art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal, potrivit carora "Daca bunul este proprietate privata, cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului, actiunea penala pentru fapta prevazuta in alin. 1 se pune in miscare la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate. Impacarea partilor inlatura raspunderea penala".
    Autorul exceptiei considera ca aceasta dispozitie legala incalca prevederile constitutionale cuprinse in art. 16 alin. (1) potrivit carora "Cetatenii sunt egali in fata legii si a autoritatilor publice, fara privilegii si fara discriminari", pe cele cuprinse in art. 41 alin. (2) teza intai, potrivit carora "Proprietatea privata este ocrotita in mod egal de lege, indiferent de titular", precum si pe cele cuprinse in art. 135 alin. (1), potrivit carora "Statul ocroteste proprietatea".
    Din examinarea dispozitiei legale criticate Curtea retine ca dispozitiile constitutionale ale art. 41 alin. (2) trebuie interpretate in sensul ca se refera la ocrotirea in mod egal atat a proprietatii apartinand persoanelor fizice ori persoanelor juridice de drept privat, cat si a proprietatii private a statului. Prin urmare, statul nu poate beneficia de o ocrotire juridica diferita de aceea a persoanelor de drept privat in ceea ce priveste bunurile ce constituie obiectul proprietatii sale private.
    Totusi, prin art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal, s-a prevazut un regim juridic diferentiat sub aspectul institutiei plangerii prealabile. Astfel, daca bunul face parte din sfera proprietatii private a altor subiecte de drept decat statul, actiunea penala impotriva autorului infractiunii de distrugere poate fi pusa in miscare numai in baza plangerii prealabile a persoanei vatamate. Daca insa bunul face obiectul proprietatii private a statului, actiunea penala poate fi pusa in miscare din oficiu, aceasta masura nemaifiind conditionata de existenta plangerii prealabile a persoanei vatamate.
    Punerea in miscare din oficiu a actiunii penale, astfel cum prevede in prezent art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal, asigura o mai energica aparare juridica, indiferent de vointa persoanei vatamate. Este de ajuns ca organele de urmarire penala sa fie sesizate despre savarsirea faptei sau chiar sa se sesizeze din oficiu pentru ca procesul penal sa fie pornit. Acest proces, astfel declansat, parcurge si faza urmaririi penale, in cadrul careia organele de urmarire penala strang probele necesare solutionarii cauzei, urmand ca sesizarea instantei sa se faca prin rechizitoriul procurorului. Dimpotriva, daca persoana vatamata este o persoana fizica sau juridica de drept privat, ea trebuie, in plus, sa se adreseze instantei cu plangerea sa, in termen de doua luni (art. 284 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala), in caz contrar raspunderea penala fiind inlaturata (art. 131 alin. 1 din Codul penal). In sfarsit, tot ea trebuie sa produca si sa prezinte probele necesare in sprijinul plangerii sale. Din toate acestea rezulta ca deosebirea de reglementare este evidenta. Intrucat dispozitiile art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie asigura o egala ocrotire proprietatii private, indiferent de titular, acestea interzic, implicit, ca legea penala sa cuprinda reglementari diferentiate cu privire la ocrotirea proprietatii private. Or, prin art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal, se face o diferentiere, pe care Constitutia o interzice, intre proprietatea privata a statului si proprietatea privata a altor subiecte de drept.
    De altfel, acest principiu constitutional al apararii nediferentiate a proprietatii private a mai fost examinat cu prilejul solutionarii unor exceptii privitoare la punerea in miscare a actiunii penale in cazul unor infractiuni impotriva patrimoniului.
    Astfel, prin deciziile nr. 177 din 15 decembrie 1998 si nr. 5 din 4 februarie 1999, publicate in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 77 din 24 februarie 1999 si nr. 95 din 5 martie 1999, Curtea a admis, in primul caz, exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, iar in cel de-al doilea caz, exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 214 alin. 3 din acelasi cod, constatand ca dispozitia "cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte proprietatea statului", cuprinsa in articolele mentionate, este neconstitutionala.
    Pentru considerentele expuse mai sus, Curtea constata ca dispozitia legala criticata este neconstitutionala in raport cu prevederile art. 41 alin. (2) din legea fundamentala.
    In consecinta, punerea in miscare a actiunii penale, in temeiul art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal, se poate face doar la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate, nu numai atunci cand bunul apartine persoanelor fizice sau juridice de drept privat, ci si atunci cand este in intregime sau in parte in proprietatea privata a statului.

    Fata de motivele aratate, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si 25 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata de Nicolae Radu in Dosarul nr. 384/1999 al Curtii de Apel Bucuresti - Sectia a II-a penala si constata ca este neconstitutionala dispozitia "cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului", prevazuta la art. 217 alin. 6 din Codul penal.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 7 octombrie 1999.

                   PRESEDINTE,
           prof. univ. dr. Ioan Muraru

                                Magistrat asistent sef,
                                     Claudia Miu



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