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DECIZIE Nr

DECIZIE   Nr. 177 din 15 decembrie 1998

referitoare la exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal

ACT EMIS DE: CURTEA CONSTITUTIONALA

ACT PUBLICAT IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL  NR. 77 din 24 februarie 1999


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    Lucian Mihai       - presedinte
    Costica Bulai      - judecator
    Constantin Doldur  - judecator
    Kozsokar Gabor     - judecator
    Ioan Muraru        - judecator
    Nicolae Popa       - judecator
    Lucian Stangu      - judecator
    Romul Petru Vonica - judecator
    Ioan Griga         - procuror
    Florentina Geangu  - magistrat-asistent

    Pe rol, solutionarea exceptiei de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, ridicata de Societatea Comerciala "Comcereal" - S.A. din Tulcea in Dosarul nr. 13.326/1997 al Judecatoriei Braila.
    Dezbaterile au avut loc in sedinta publica din data de 24 noiembrie 1998, in prezenta inculpatilor Muscalu Stefana si Gori Gheorghe si in lipsa autorului exceptiei, a Societatii Comerciale "Braigal" - S.A. din Braila si a inculpatului Coraci Constantin, legal citati, fiind consemnate in incheierea de la acea data, cand Curtea, avand nevoie de timp pentru a delibera, a amanat pronuntarea pentru data de 10 decembrie 1998 si apoi, pentru data de 15 decembrie 1998.

    CURTEA,
avand in vedere actele si lucrarile dosarului, constata urmatoarele:
    Judecatoria Braila, prin Incheierea din 8 iunie 1998, pronuntata in Dosarul nr. 13.326/1997 privindu-i pe inculpatii Coraci Constantin, Muscalu Stefana si Gori Gheorghe, a dispus sesizarea Curtii Constitutionale cu exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a dispozitiilor art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, ridicata de partea responsabila civilmente - Societatea Comerciala "Comcereal" - S.A. din Tulcea.
    Prin rechizitoriul Parchetului de pe langa Tribunalul Braila, inculpatii Coraci Constantin si Muscalu Stefana au fost trimisi in judecata pentru savarsirea infractiunii de abuz de incredere, prevazuta la art. 213 din Codul penal, iar inculpatul Gori Gheorghe, pentru complicitate la aceasta infractiune, retinandu-se in sarcina primilor doi inculpati ca, in calitate de prepusi ai Societatii Comerciale "Comcereal" - S.A. din Tulcea, la insistentele celui de-al treilea, au dispus pe nedrept de cantitatea de 198.000 kg porumb boabe, proprietatea Societatii Comerciale "Braigal" - S.A. din Braila, detinuta in baza unui contract de depozit.
    Partea responsabila civilmente - Societatea Comerciala "Comcereal" - S.A. din Tulcea a ridicat exceptia de neconstitutionalitate a prevederilor art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal. In motivarea exceptiei se sustine ca toate faptele calificate ca infractiune de abuz de incredere trebuie sa aiba o reglementare unitara. Discriminarea instituita prin art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, in sensul ca aceste infractiuni, in cazul in care bunul care constituie obiectul lor material apartine integral sau in parte proprietatii private a statului, se urmaresc din oficiu si nu doar la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate, contravine art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie.
    Judecatoria Braila, exprimandu-si opinia, a considerat ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate invocata este intemeiata.
    Potrivit art. 24 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, s-au solicitat punctele de vedere ale presedintilor celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului. In punctul sau de vedere Guvernul apreciaza ca exceptia de neconstitutionalitate este neintemeiata, intrucat diferentierea facuta in alin. 2 al art. 213 din Codul penal se refera doar la aspecte vizand modalitatile de declansare a procesului penal si nu are semnificatia crearii unui regim de ocrotire diferentiat a valorii sociale aparate. Ocrotirea in mod egal a proprietatii private, indiferent de titular, se realizeaza prin dispozitiile art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, care prevad aceleasi conditii de incriminare si aceleasi pedepse, indiferent in dauna cui s-a savarsit infractiunea.
    Presedintii celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului nu au comunicat punctele lor de vedere.

    CURTEA,
examinand incheierea de sesizare, punctul de vedere al Guvernului, raportul intocmit de judecatorul-raportor, sustinerile partilor, concluziile procurorului, dispozitiile legale atacate, raportate la prevederile Constitutiei si ale Legii nr. 47/1992, retine urmatoarele:
    Potrivit art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie si art. 23 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, Curtea Constitutionala este competenta sa solutioneze exceptia ridicata, fiind legal sesizata.
    Critica de neconstitutionalitate priveste art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, potrivit caruia: "Daca bunul este proprietate privata, cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului, actiunea penala se pune in miscare la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate. Impacarea partilor inlatura raspunderea penala".
    Autorul exceptiei considera ca acest text de lege incalca prevederile art. 41 alin. (2) din Constitutie, potrivit carora "proprietatea privata este ocrotita in mod egal de lege, indiferent de titular".
    Curtea Constitutionala retine ca aceasta dispozitie constitutionala trebuie interpretata in sensul ca se refera la ocrotirea in mod egal atat a proprietatii apartinand persoanelor fizice ori persoanelor juridice de drept privat, cat si a proprietatii private a statului. Rezulta ca statul nu poate beneficia, cat priveste bunurile care formeaza obiectul proprietatii private, de o ocrotire juridica diferita de aceea a persoanelor fizice sau a persoanelor juridice de drept privat.
    Totusi, prin art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, pentru proprietatea privata s-a prevazut un regim juridic diferentiat, sub aspectul institutiei plangerii prealabile. Astfel, daca bunul face parte din sfera proprietatii private a altor subiecte de drept decat statul, actiunea penala impotriva celui care, prin abuz de incredere, si-a insusit bunul mobil sau a dispus de acest bun ori a refuzat sa-l restituie poate fi pusa in miscare numai in baza plangerii prealabile a persoanei vatamate. In schimb, daca bunul este proprietate privata a statului, actiunea penala poate fi pusa in miscare din oficiu, aceasta masura nemaifiind conditionata de existenta plangerii prealabile a persoanei vatamate.
    Punerea in miscare, din oficiu, a actiunii penale, astfel cum prevede in prezent art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, asigura, evident, o mai energica aparare juridica, indiferent de vointa persoanei vatamate. Este de ajuns ca organele de urmarire penala sa fie sesizate despre savarsirea faptei sau chiar sa se sesizeze din oficiu pentru ca procesul penal sa fie pornit. Iar acest proces, astfel declansat, parcurge si faza urmaririi penale, in cadrul careia organele de urmarire penala strang probele necesare solutionarii cauzei, urmand ca sesizarea instantei sa se faca prin rechizitoriul procurorului. Dimpotriva, daca persoana vatamata este o persoana fizica sau juridica de drept privat, ea trebuie, in plus, sa se adreseze instantei cu plangerea sa, in termen de doua luni (art. 284 alin. 1 din Codul de procedura penala), in caz contrar raspunderea penala fiind inlaturata (art. 131 alin. 1 din Codul penal). In sfarsit, tot ea trebuie sa produca si sa prezinte probele necesare in sprijinul plangerii sale. Din toate acestea rezulta ca deosebirea de reglementare este evidenta.
    Constitutia asigura, prin art. 41 alin. (2), o egala ocrotire proprietatii private, indiferent daca aceasta apartine statului sau altei persoane juridice ori fizice si, implicit, interzice ca legea penala sa contina reglementari distincte cu privire la ocrotirea proprietatii private. Or, prin art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal se face o diferentiere neconstitutionala intre proprietatea privata a statului si proprietatea privata a altor subiecte de drept, atunci cand se precizeaza ca, daca "bunul este proprietate privata, cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului, actiunea penala se pune in miscare la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate". De aceea Curtea Constitutionala constata ca, in raport cu prevederile art. 41 alin. (2) din legea fundamentala, aceasta dispozitie este neconstitutionala.
    In consecinta, punerea in miscare a actiunii penale in temeiul art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal se poate face doar la plangerea prealabila a persoanei vatamate, nu numai atunci cand bunul apartine persoanelor fizice sau persoanelor juridice de drept privat, ci si atunci cand bunul este in intregime sau in parte in proprietatea privata a statului.

    Pentru considerentele expuse, in temeiul art. 144 lit. c) din Constitutie, precum si al art. 13 alin. (1) lit. A.c), al art. 23 si al art. 25 din Legea nr. 47/1992, republicata, cu majoritate de voturi,

    CURTEA
    In numele legii
    DECIDE:

    Admite exceptia de neconstitutionalitate ridicata de Societatea Comerciala "Comcereal" - S.A. din Tulcea in Dosarul nr. 13.326/1997 al Judecatoriei Braila si constata ca dispozitia "cu exceptia cazului cand acesta este in intregime sau in parte al statului", prevazuta la art. 213 alin. 2 din Codul penal, este neconstitutionala.
    Decizia se comunica celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului si Guvernului.
    Definitiva si obligatorie.
    Pronuntata in sedinta publica din data de 15 decembrie 1998.

             PRESEDINTELE CURTII CONSTITUTIONALE,
                          LUCIAN MIHAI

                                 Magistrat asistent,
                                 Florentina Geangu



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